tm2212435-8_f1a - block - 70.6878127s
TABLE OF CONTENTS
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on June 21, 2022
Registration No. 333-265284
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
AMENDMENT NO. 2
TO
FORM F-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
Under
The Securities Act of 1933
Prenetics Global Limited
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Not Applicable
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
Cayman Islands
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
3826
(Primary Standard Industrial Classification Code Number)
Not Applicable
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
Unit 701-706, K11 Atelier King’s Road 728 King’s Road, Quarry Bay
Hong Kong
+852 2210-9588
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)
Cogency Global Inc.
122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor New York, N.Y. 10168
+1 (800) 221-0102
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Jonathan B. Stone, Esq.
Paloma Wang, Esq.
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP
42/F, Edinburgh Tower, The Landmark
15 Queen’s Road Central
Hong Kong
Tel: +852 3740-4700
Peter X. Huang, Esq.
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP
30/F, China World Office 2
No. 1, Jian Guo Men Wai Avenue
Beijing 100004, P.R. China
Tel: +86 10-6535-5500
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after this registration statement becomes effective.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933 (as amended, the “Securities Act”), check the following box. ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.
Emerging growth company  ☒
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐

The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or “SEC,” acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or “SEC,” is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JUNE 21, 2022
PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS
Prenetics Global Limited
60,441,798 CLASS A ORDINARY SHARES,
6,041,007 WARRANTS TO PURCHASE CLASS A ORDINARY SHARES AND
7,792,898 CLASS A ORDINARY SHARES UNDERLYING WARRANTS
This prospectus relates to the offer and sale from time to time by the selling securityholders or their pledgees, donees, transferees, or other successors in interest (collectively, the “Selling Securityholders”) of up to (A) 60,441,798 Class A Ordinary Shares, which includes (i) 7,198,200 Class A Ordinary Shares issued in the PIPE Investment at an effective price of $7.75 per share, pursuant to the Amended PIPE Subscription Agreements, (ii) 7,740,000 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to the Forward Purchase Investors at an effective price of $7.75 per share (assuming no value is assigned to the Artisan Private Warrants issued to the Forward Purchase Investors referred to in clause (B)), pursuant to the Amended Forward Purchase Agreements and the Deeds of Amendment to Deed of Novation and Amendment, (iii) 6,933,558 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to the Sponsor pursuant to the Initial Merger, which shares were exchanged from the Artisan Public Shares which were issued upon conversion of the Founder Shares originally issued as set forth in the immediately following paragraph, (iv) 100,000 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to certain Artisan directors pursuant to the Initial Merger, which shares were exchanged from the Artisan Public Shares which were issued upon conversion of the Founder Shares originally issued as set forth in the immediately following paragraph, (v) 9,713,864 Class A Ordinary Shares issuable upon the conversion of 9,713,864 Class B Ordinary Shares issued to Da Yeung Limited pursuant to the Acquisition Merger, which shares were exchanged from ordinary shares and Series A preferred shares of Prenetics originally issued by Prenetics at a weighted average effective price of $0.04 per share, as adjusted for the Exchange Ratio, (vi) 1,881,844 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to Avrom Boris Lasarow pursuant to the Acquisition Merger, which shares were exchanged from ordinary shares of Prenetics originally issued by Prenetics at an effective price of $1.60 per share, as adjusted for the Exchange Ratio, (vii) 3,840,716 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to For Excelsiors Limited pursuant to the Acquisition Merger, which shares were exchanged from ordinary shares of Prenetics originally issued by Prenetics at a weighted average effective price of $0.03 per share, as adjusted for the Exchange Ratio, (viii) 12,660,138 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to Prudential Hong Kong Limited pursuant to the Acquisition Merger, which shares were exchanged from Series C preferred shares of Prenetics originally issued by Prenetics at an effective price of $1.60 per share, as adjusted for the Exchange Ratio, (ix) 9,206,785 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to Genetel Bioventures Limited pursuant to the Acquisition Merger, which shares were exchanged from ordinary shares of Prenetics originally issued by Prenetics at a weighted average effective price of $0.07 per share, as adjusted for the Exchange Ratio, (x) 789,282 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to Cui Zhanfeng pursuant to the Acquisition Merger, which shares were exchanged from ordinary shares of Prenetics originally issued by Prenetics at an effective price of $2.25 per share, as adjusted for the Exchange Ratio, and (xi) 377,411 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to Lucky Rider Investments Limited pursuant to the Acquisition Merger, which shares were exchanged from Series D preferred shares of Prenetics originally issued by Prenetics at an effective price of $2.25 per share, as adjusted for the Exchange Ratio; (B) 6,041,007 Warrants (“Private Warrants”) issued to the Sponsor and the Forward Purchase Investors pursuant to the Initial Merger, which were exchanged from Artisan Private Warrants originally issued to the Sponsor at a purchase price of $1.50 and to the Forward Purchase Investors (together with the issuance of Class A Ordinary Shares) pursuant to the Amended Forward Purchase Agreements and the Deeds of Amendment to Deed of Novation and Amendment; and (C) up to 7,792,898 Class A Ordinary Shares issuable upon exercises of the Private Warrants.
Prior to the consummation of Artisan’s IPO, the Sponsor purchased 8,625,000 Founder Shares for an aggregate purchase price of $25,000, or approximately $0.003 per share. Artisan subsequently effected a share recapitalization and issued an additional 1,500,000 Founder Shares to the Sponsor for no consideration. The Sponsor subsequently transferred an aggregate of 100,000 Founder Shares to certain Artisan directors for no consideration and an aggregate of 750,000 Founder Shares to the Forward Purchase Investors pursuant to the Forward Purchase Agreements, and forfeited 141,442 Founder Shares as the over-allotment option of the underwriters of Artisan’s IPO was not exercised in full, resulting in the Sponsor owning 9,133,558 Founder Shares. Pursuant to the Sponsor Agreement and the Initial Merger, all 9,133,558 Founder Shares were converted into Artisan Public Shares which were then exchanged for an aggregate of 6,933,558 Class A Ordinary Shares upon the closing of the Initial Merger. This resulted in an effective price of approximately $0.004 per share for each of the shares received by the Sponsor pursuant to the Initial Merger and being registered for resale by the Sponsor pursuant to this registration statement.
We are registering the offer and sale of these securities to satisfy certain registration rights we have granted. The Selling Securityholders may offer all or part of the securities for resale from time to time through public or private transactions, at either prevailing market prices or at privately negotiated prices. These securities are being registered to

TABLE OF CONTENTS
permit the Selling Securityholders to sell securities from time to time, in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The Selling Securityholders may sell these securities through ordinary brokerage transactions, in underwritten offerings, directly to market makers of our shares or through any other means described in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” herein. In connection with any sales of securities offered hereunder, the Selling Securityholders, any underwriters, agents, brokers or dealers participating in such sales may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the “Securities Act.”
We are registering these securities for resale by the Selling Securityholders named in this prospectus, or their transferees, pledgees, donees or assignees or other successors-in-interest (that receive any of the securities as a gift, distribution, or other non-sale related transfer).
We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the securities by the Selling Securityholders, except with respect to amounts received by the Company upon exercise of the Warrants to the extent such Warrants are exercised for cash. Assuming the exercise of all outstanding warrants for cash, we would receive aggregate proceeds of approximately $199.6 million. However, we will only receive such proceeds if all the Warrant holders exercise all of their Warrants. The exercise price of our Warrants is $11.50 per 1.29 shares (or an effective price of $8.91 per share), subject to adjustment. We believe that the likelihood that warrant holders determine to exercise their warrants, and therefore the amount of cash proceeds that we would receive, is dependent upon the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares. If the market price for our Class A Ordinary Shares is less than the exercise price of the warrants (on a per share basis), we believe that warrant holders will be very unlikely to exercise any of their warrants, and accordingly, we will not receive any such proceeds. There is no assurance that the warrants will be “in the money” prior to their expiration or that the warrant holders will exercise their warrants. As of June 9, 2022, the closing price of our Class A Ordinary Shares was $4.43 per share. Holders of the Private Warrants have the option to exercise the Private Warrants on a cashless basis in accordance with the Existing Warrant Agreement. To the extent that any warrants are exercised on a cashless basis, the amount of cash we would receive from the exercise of the warrants will decrease.
Our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants are listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC, or “NASDAQ,” under the trading symbols “PRE” and “PRENW,” respectively. On June 9, 2022, the closing price for our Class A Ordinary Shares on NASDAQ was $4.43. On June 9, 2022, the closing price for our Warrants on NASDAQ was $0.38.
In connection with and prior to the Business Combination, holders of 28,878,277 Artisan Public Shares exercised their right to redeem their shares for cash at a price of approximately $10.01 per share, for an aggregate price of $288.9 million, which represented approximately 85.1% of the total Artisan Public Shares then outstanding. The Class A Ordinary Shares being offered for resale pursuant to this prospectus represent approximately 55.2% of the current total outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares (assuming and after giving effect to the issuance of shares upon exercise of all outstanding Warrants), and the warrants being offered for resale pursuant to this prospectus represent approximately 34.8% of our outstanding Warrants. Given the substantial number of securities being registered for potential resale by the selling securityholders pursuant to this registration statement, the sale of such securities by the selling securityholders, or the perception in the market that the selling securityholders may or intend to sell all or a significant portion of such securities, could increase the volatility of the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares or Warrants or result in a significant decline in the public trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares or Warrants. Even though the current trading price of the Class A Ordinary Shares is below $10.00, which is the price at which the units were issued in Artisan’s IPO, the Sponsor and certain other selling securityholders have an incentive to sell their Class A Ordinary Shares because they will still profit on sales due to the lower price at which they purchased their shares compared to the price at which public investors in Artisan’s IPO purchased their shares or the current trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares. Public investors may not experience a similar rate of return on the securities they purchase due to differences in the purchase prices that they paid and the current trading price. Based on the closing prices of our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants referenced above, (i) the selling securityholders that were formerly securityholders of Prenetics may experience profit ranging from $2.18 to $4.40 per share, (ii) the Sponsor may experience profit of up to $4.426 per share, or up to approximately $30.7 million in the aggregate, and (iii) the Artisan Directors may experience profit of up to $4.43 per share, or up to approximately $443,000 in the aggregate.
We may amend or supplement this prospectus from time to time by filing amendments or supplements as required. You should read this entire prospectus and any amendments or supplements carefully before you make your investment decision.
We are a “foreign private issuer” as defined under the U.S. federal securities laws and, as such, may elect to comply with certain reduced public company disclosure and reporting requirements. See “Prospectus Summary — Foreign Private Issuer.”
Throughout this prospectus, unless the context indicates otherwise, references to “Prenetics” refer to Prenetics Holding Company Limited, formerly known as Prenetics Group Limited, a Cayman Islands holding company, references to “Prenetics HK” refer to Prenetics Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Prenetics, and references to “Prenetics Group” refer to Prenetics Holding Company Limited, together as a group with its subsidiaries, including its operating subsidiaries, and, prior to the termination of the VIE agreements on November 26, 2021, the VIE Entity (as defined below). Prenetics HK, Prenetics EMEA Limited, Oxsed Limited, Prenetics Innovation Labs Private Limited and Prenetics Africa (Pty) Limited, the operating subsidiaries

TABLE OF CONTENTS
of Prenetics’ based in the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, India and South Africa, respectively (collectively, “Prenetics Operating Subsidiaries”), conduct our daily operations. As a result of the Business Combination, Prenetics has become a wholly owned subsidiary of us. We are a Cayman Islands holding company and not an operating company. Investors purchasing our securities are purchasing equity interests in the Cayman Islands holding company and are not purchasing equity interests of Prenetics Operating Subsidiaries.
Recently, the Chinese government announced that it would increase supervision of mainland Chinese firms listed offshore. Under the new measures, China will improve regulation of cross-border data flows and security, police illegal activity in the securities market and punish fraudulent securities issuances, market manipulation and insider trading. China will also monitor sources of funding for securities investment and control leverage ratios. The Cyberspace Administration of China (“CAC”) has also opened a cybersecurity probe into several large U.S.-listed technology companies focusing on anti-monopoly and financial technology regulation and, more recently with the passage of the PRC Data Security Law, how companies collect, store, process and transfer data.
We face various legal and operational risks and uncertainties relating to our operations in Hong Kong. Historically, Prenetics HK held a minority interest in a genomics business in mainland China through Shenzhen Discover Health Technology Co., Ltd. (the “VIE Entity”), a PRC limited liability company, by entering into a series of contractual arrangements with the VIE Entity and its nominee shareholders through Prenetics HK’s wholly owned PRC subsidiary, Qianhai Prenetics Technology (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd. (the “WFOE”). On November 26, 2021, the agreements governing the VIE Entity were terminated with immediate effect. As a result, our corporate structure no longer contain any variable interest entity, or VIE. While the current corporate structure does not contain any VIE and we have no intention establishing any VIEs in PRC in the future, if in the future our structure were to contain a VIE, the PRC regulatory authorities could disallow the VIE structure, which would likely result in a material adverse change in our operations, and our securities may decline significantly in value or become worthless. Although currently we do not have any business operations in mainland China nor do we have any VIE structure and we believe that the laws and regulations of the PRC applicable in mainland China do not currently have any material impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations, we face risks and uncertainties associated with the complex and evolving PRC laws and regulations and as to whether and how the recent PRC government statements and regulatory developments, such as those relating to VIE, data and cyberspace security, and anti-monopoly concerns, would be applicable to the company such as Prenetics or Prenetics HK given its substantial operations in Hong Kong and the Chinese government’s significant oversight authority over the conduct of business in Hong Kong.
Should the Chinese government seek to affect operations of any company with any level of operations in Hong Kong, or should certain PRC laws and regulations or these statements or regulatory actions become applicable to us in the future, it would likely have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations, ability to accept foreign investments and our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors on a U.S. or other international securities exchange, any of which may cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless. For example, if the recent PRC regulatory actions on data security or other data-related laws and regulations were to apply to us it could become subject to certain cybersecurity and data privacy obligations, including the potential requirement to conduct a cybersecurity review for its listing at a foreign stock exchange, and the failure to meet such obligations could result in penalties and other regulatory actions against it and may materially and adversely affect its business and results of operations. Furthermore, on December 2, 2021, the SEC adopted final amendments implementing the disclosure and submission requirements under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act (the “HFCA Act”), pursuant to which the SEC will identify a “Commission-Identified Issuer” if an issuer has filed an annual report containing an audit report issued by a registered public accounting firm that the PCAOB has determined it is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a position taken by an authority in the foreign jurisdiction, and will then impose a trading prohibition on an issuer after it is identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer for three consecutive years. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report on its determinations that it is unable to inspect or investigate completely PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and in Hong Kong, because of positions taken by one or more authorities in such jurisdictions. Since our auditor is located in Hong Kong, our auditor is included on a list of audit firms the PCAOB determined it is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a position taken by one or more authorities in Hong Kong, and is therefore subject to the PCAOB’s determination. Therefore we could be delisted and its securities could be prohibited from being traded “over-the-counter” if it is identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer for three consecutive years. If our securities are unable to be listed on another securities exchange by then, such a delisting or prohibition of trading would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase our securities when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with a potential delisting or prohibition of trading would have a negative impact on the price of our securities. The Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, passed by the U.S. Senate and if enacted, would require foreign companies to comply with the PCAOB audits within two consecutive years instead of three consecutive years. In light of the PRC government’s recent expansion of authority in Hong Kong, there are risks and uncertainties which we cannot foresee for the time being, and rules and regulations in China can change quickly with little or no advance notice. The PRC government may intervene or influence our current and future operations in Hong Kong and mainland

TABLE OF CONTENTS
China at any time, or may exert more control over offerings conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in companies like us. For a detailed description of risks relating to doing business in Hong Kong, see “Risk Factors  —  Risks Relating to Doing Business in Hong Kong.”
In February 2019, Prenetics HK invested in a genomics business in mainland China in the amount of RMB29,250,000 (equivalent to $4,236,765) through its VIE Entity. Since the date of the initial investment through the date of this prospectus, no transfer of cash, dividends or distributions has been made between us or our subsidiaries, on one hand, and the VIE Entity, on the other. Between Prenetics HK and its subsidiaries, the cash was transferred from Prenetics HK to its subsidiaries in the form of capital contributions and through intercompany advances. No transfer of cash has been made between Prenetics and its subsidiaries. Neither Prenetics HK nor Prenetics has declared or paid dividends in the past, nor have any dividends or distributions been made by a subsidiary to Prenetics HK or Prenetics. If needed, cash may be transferred between Prenetics HK and its subsidiaries in the United Kingdom, India and South Africa through intercompany fund advances and capital contributions, and there are currently no restrictions of transferring funds between Prenetics HK and its subsidiaries in the United Kingdom, India and South Africa. However, there also can be no assurance that the PRC government will not intervene or impose restrictions on our ability to transfer or distribute cash within our organization, which could result in an inability or prohibition on making transfers or distributions to entities outside of Hong Kong and adversely affect its business. Under our cash management policy, the amount of intercompany transfer of funds is determined based on the working capital needs of the subsidiaries and intercompany transactions and is subject to internal approval process and funding arrangements. Our management review and monitor our cash flow forecast and working capital needs of the subsidiaries on a regular basis. In addition, we have not faced difficulties or limitations on our ability to transfer cash between subsidiaries in United Kingdom, India, Singapore and South Africa. Cash generated from Prenetics HK is used to fund operations of its subsidiaries, and no funds were transferred from our subsidiaries in the United Kingdom to fund operations of Prenetics HK for the year ended on December 31, 2019, December 31, 2020, and December 31, 2021. For a detailed description of the intercompany transfer of cash within our group, please see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations  —  Liquidity and Capital Resources.” See also “Selected Historical Financial Data of Prenetics” for our condensed consolidating schedules, including the WFOE, the VIE Entity and other subsidiaries of us, respectively, starting on page 74 of this prospectus, and our audited consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 starting from page F-2 of this prospectus.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 14 of this prospectus and other risk factors contained in the documents incorporated by reference herein for a discussion of information that should be considered in connection with an investment in our securities.
Neither the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
PROSPECTUS DATED                 , 2022

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ii
iii
iv
v
1
12
14
62
63
75
77
78
79
80
90
131
152
162
164
167
173
179
182
189
193
194
195
196
197
F-1
II-1
You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any supplement. Neither we nor the Selling Securityholders have authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. The securities offered by this prospectus are being offered only in jurisdictions where the offer is permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or any supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of each document. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.
Except as otherwise set forth in this prospectus, neither we nor the Selling Securityholders have taken any action to permit a public offering of these securities outside the United States or to permit the possession or distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about and observe any restrictions relating to the offering of these securities and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.
 
i

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form F-1 filed with the SEC by Prenetics Global Limited. The Selling Securityholders named in this prospectus may, from time to time, sell the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. This prospectus includes important information about us, the securities being offered by the Selling Securityholders and other information you should know before investing. Any prospectus supplement may also add, update, or change information in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between the information contained in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information contained in that particular prospectus supplement. This prospectus does not contain all of the information provided in the registration statement that we filed with the SEC. You should read this prospectus together with the additional information about us described in the section below entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.” You should rely only on information contained in this prospectus. We have not, and the Selling Securityholders have not, authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front cover of the prospectus. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any other date.
The Selling Securityholders may offer and sell the securities directly to purchasers, through agents selected by the Selling Securityholders, or to or through underwriters or dealers. A prospectus supplement, if required, may describe the terms of the plan of distribution and set forth the names of any agents, underwriters or dealers involved in the sale of securities. See “Plan of Distribution.”
References to “U.S. Dollars,” “USD,” “US$” and “$” in this prospectus are to United States dollars, the legal currency of the United States. Discrepancies in any table between totals and sums of the amounts listed are due to rounding. Certain amounts and percentages have been rounded; consequently, certain figures may add up to be more or less than the total amount and certain percentages may add up to be more or less than 100% due to rounding. In particular and without limitation, amounts expressed in millions contained in this prospectus have been rounded to a single decimal place for the convenience of readers.
Throughout this prospectus, unless otherwise designated, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” “PubCo,” “the Company” and “our company” refer to Prenetics Global Limited and its subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities. References to “Prenetics” refers to Prenetics Holding Company Limited.
 
ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
FINANCIAL STATEMENT PRESENTATION
PubCo
We are qualified as a Foreign Private Issuer and, following the Business Combination, we prepare our financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”), as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board.
Prenetics
The audited consolidated statements of financial position of Prenetics and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the related consolidated statements of profit or loss and other comprehensive income, changes in of Prenetics equity and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes, included in this prospectus have been prepared in accordance with IFRS as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board and are presented in U.S. Dollars. Prenetics Group underwent certain corporate restructuring through which Prenetics HK became a wholly owned subsidiary of Prenetics upon the completion of the restructuring in June 2021. As Prenetics had no operations or material assets prior to the restructuring, the restructuring only involves the insertion of Prenetics as a new shell holding company and the financial statements of Prenetics for the periods prior to the corporate restructuring would be substantially identical to the financial statements of Prenetics HK. Accordingly, the references to the historical consolidated financial statements of Prenetics in this prospectus have been prepared on a basis as if the corporate restructuring had happened on January 1, 2019, and the consolidated statements of financial position as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the related consolidated statements of profit or loss and other comprehensive income, changes in equity and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes represent the continuation of the consolidated financial statements of Prenetics HK.
Artisan
The historical financial statements of Artisan Acquisition Corp. (“Artisan”) were prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) and are denominated in U.S. Dollars.
 
iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA
Our industry and market position information that appears in this prospectus is from independent market research carried out by Frost & Sullivan (“F&S”), which was commissioned by us. This information involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to these estimates.
Such information is supplemented where necessary with our own internal estimates and information obtained from discussions with our customers, taking into account publicly available information about other industry participants and our management’s judgment where information is not publicly available. This information appears in “Prospectus Summary,” “Market Opportunities,” “Business” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and other sections of this prospectus.
Industry reports, publications, research, studies and forecasts generally state that the information they contain has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but that the accuracy and completeness of such information is not guaranteed. In some cases, we do not expressly refer to the sources from which this data is derived. While we have compiled, extracted, and reproduced industry data from these sources, we have not independently verified the data. We are responsible for the industry and market data contained in this prospectus. Forecasts and other forward-looking information obtained from these sources are subject to the same qualifications and uncertainties as the other forward-looking statements in this prospectus. These forecasts and forward-looking information are subject to uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described under “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in any forecasts or estimates.
 
iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and any prospectus supplement include statements that express our opinions, expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or projections regarding future events or future results of operations or financial condition and therefore are, or may be deemed to be, “forward-looking statements.” These forward-looking statements can generally be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, including the terms “believe,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “seek,” “project,” “intend,” “plan,” “may,” “will” or “should” or, in each case, their negative or other variations or comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include all matters that are not historical facts. They appear in a number of places throughout this prospectus and include statements regarding our intentions, beliefs or current expectations concerning, among other things, the benefits and synergies of the Business Combination, including anticipated cost savings, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, prospects, growth, strategies, future market conditions or economic performance and developments in the capital and credit markets and expected future financial performance, the markets in which we operate as well as any information concerning possible or assumed future results of operations of our Company. Such forward-looking statements are based on available current market material and management’s expectations, beliefs and forecasts concerning future events impacting us. Factors that may impact such forward-looking statements include:

Changes in applicable laws or regulations, or the application thereof to us, including, without limitation, changes in PRC laws and regulations that currently do not apply to us but may become applicable to us;

Developments related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including, among others, with respect to stay-at-home orders, social distancing measures, the success of vaccine rollouts, numbers of COVID-19 cases and the occurrence of new COVID-19 strains;

The regulatory environment and changes in laws, regulations or policies in the jurisdictions in which we operate;

Our ability to successfully compete in highly competitive industries and markets;

Our ability to continue to adjust our offerings to meet market demand, attract customers to choose our products and services and grow our ecosystem;

Political instability in the jurisdictions in which we operate;

The overall economic environment and general market and economic conditions in the jurisdictions in which we operate;

Our ability to execute our strategies, manage growth and maintain our corporate culture as we grow;

Our anticipated investments in new products, services, collaboration arrangements, technologies and strategic acquisitions, and the effect of these investments on our results of operations;

Our ability to develop and protect intellectual property;

Changes in the need for capital and the availability of financing and capital to fund these needs;

Anticipated technology trends and developments and our ability to address those trends and developments with our products and services;

The safety, affordability, convenience and breadth of our products and services;

Man-made or natural disasters, health epidemics, and other outbreaks including war, acts of international or domestic terrorism, civil disturbances, occurrences of catastrophic events and acts of God such as floods, earthquakes, wildfires, typhoons and other adverse weather and natural conditions that affect our business or assets;

The loss of key personnel and the inability to replace such personnel on a timely basis or on acceptable terms;

Exchange rate fluctuations;

Changes in interest rates or rates of inflation;
 
v

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

Legal, regulatory and other proceedings;

Our ability to maintain the listing of our securities on NASDAQ; and

The results of future financing efforts.
The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus are based on our current expectations and beliefs concerning future developments and their potential effects on us. There can be no assurance that future developments affecting us will be those that we have anticipated. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties (some of which are beyond our control) or other assumptions that may cause actual results or performance to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those factors described under the heading “Risk Factors.” Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of the assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary in material respects from those projected in these forward-looking statements. We will not undertake any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws. In light of these risks and uncertainties, you should keep in mind that any event described in a forward-looking statement made in this prospectus or elsewhere might not occur.
 
vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
FREQUENTLY USED TERMS
Unless otherwise stated or unless the context otherwise requires in this document:
Acquisition Merger” means the merger between Prenetics Merger Sub and Prenetics, with Prenetics being the surviving entity and becoming a wholly owned subsidiary of PubCo;
Amended Forward Purchase Agreements” means (i) the Forward Purchase Agreement entered into as of March 1, 2021 with Aspex Master Fund; and (ii) the Forward Purchase Agreement entered into as of March 1, 2021 with Pacific Alliance Asia Opportunity Fund L.P., as amended by the Deeds of Novation and Amendment;
Artisan” means Artisan Acquisition Corp., an exempted company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands;
Artisan Articles” means Artisan’s amended and restated memorandum and articles of association adopted by special resolution dated May 13, 2021;
Artisan Board” means the board of directors of Artisan;
Artisan Directors” means William Keller, Mitch Garber, Fan Yu, Sean O’Neill;
Artisan Merger Sub” means AAC Merger Limited, an exempted company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and a direct wholly owned subsidiary of PubCo;
Artisan Private Warrants” means the warrants sold to the Sponsor in the private placement consummated concurrently with the IPO, each entitling its holder to purchase one Artisan Public Share at an exercise price of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustment;
Artisan Public Share” means a Class A ordinary share, par value $0.0001 per share, of Artisan;
Artisan Public Shareholder” means a holder of Artisan Public Shares issued as part of the Units issued in the IPO;
Artisan Public Warrants” means the redeemable warrants issued in the IPO, each entitling its holder to purchase one Artisan Public Share at an exercise price of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustment;
Artisan Shares” means the Artisan Public Shares and Founder Shares;
Artisan Warrants” means the Artisan Public Warrants and the Artisan Private Warrants;
Business Combination” means the Initial Merger, the Acquisition Merger and the other transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement;
Business Combination Agreement” means the business combination agreement, dated September 15, 2021 (as amended by an Amendment to Business Combination Agreement dated as of March 30, 2022 and as may be further amended, supplemented, or otherwise modified from time to time), by and among PubCo, Artisan, Artisan Merger Sub, Prenetics Merger Sub and Prenetics;
Business Combination Transactions” means, collectively, the Initial Merger, the Acquisition Merger and each of the other transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement, the PIPE Subscription Agreements, the Amendments to PIPE Subscription Agreements, the Sponsor Support Agreement, the Sponsor Support Agreement Amendment Deed, the Sponsor Agreement, the Shareholder Support Agreements, the Management Shareholder Support Agreement Amendment Deed, the Registration Rights Agreement, the Assignment, Assumption and Amendment Agreement, the Plan of Initial Merger and such other documents as may be required in accordance with applicable law to make the Initial Merger effective, the Plan of Acquisition Merger and such other documents as may be required in accordance with applicable law to make the Acquisition Merger effective, and any other agreements, documents or certificates entered into or delivered pursuant thereto;
Cayman Islands Companies Act” means the Companies Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands;
 
vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
China” or “PRC,” in each case, means the People’s Republic of China, including Hong Kong and Macau and excluding, solely for the purpose of this prospectus, Taiwan. The term “Chinese” has a correlative meaning for the purpose of this prospectus;
Class A Exchange Ratio” means a ratio equal to 1.29;
Class A Ordinary Share” means a Class A ordinary share, par value $0.0001 per share, of PubCo;
Class B Ordinary Share” means a convertible Class B ordinary share, par value $0.0001 per share, of PubCo;
Class B Recapitalization” means, (i) the conversion of 9,133,558 Founder Shares held by Sponsor into 5,374,851 Artisan Public Shares, (ii) the conversion of an aggregate of 100,000 Founder Shares held by the Artisan independent directors into 77,519 Artisan Public Shares, and (iii) the surrender and forfeiture by Sponsor of 1,316,892 Private Placement Warrants, in each case of (i), (ii) and (iii) pursuant to and subject to the terms and conditions of the Sponsor Agreement immediately prior to the Initial Merger, and (iv) the conversion of all the Founder Shares held by the Forward Purchase Investors on a one-for-one basis pursuant to and subject to the terms and conditions of the Deeds of Amendment to the Deeds of Novation and Amendment immediately prior to the Initial Closing;
Closing” means the closing of the Acquisition Merger;
Closing Date” means May 18, 2022, the date of the Closing;
Continental” means Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company;
Deeds of Novation and Amendment” means (i) the Deed of Novation and Amendment entered into by Artisan, Sponsor, PubCo and Aspex Master Fund, dated as of September 15, 2021 (pursuant to such amendment, Aspex Master Fund committed to subscribe for and purchase 3,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares and 750,000 Warrants for an aggregate purchase price equal to $30 million); and (ii) the Deed of Novation and Amendment entered into by Artisan, Sponsor, PubCo and Pacific Alliance Asia Opportunity Fund L.P., dated as of September 15, 2021 (pursuant to such amendment, Pacific Alliance Asia Opportunity Fund L.P. committed to subscribe for and purchase 3,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares and 750,000 Warrants for an aggregate purchase price equal to $30 million);
Dissent Rights” means the right of each holder of record of Artisan Shares to dissent in respect of the Initial Merger pursuant to Section 238 of the Cayman Islands Companies Act;
Dissenting Artisan Shareholders” means holders of Dissenting Artisan Shares;
Dissenting Artisan Shares” means Artisan Shares that are (i) issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Initial Merger Effective Time and (ii) held by Artisan shareholders who have validly exercised their Dissent Rights (and not waived, withdrawn, lost or failed to perfect such rights);
ESOP” means the 2021 Share Incentive Plan of Prenetics adopted on June 16, 2021, as may be amended from time to time;
Exchange Ratio” means a ratio equal to 2.033097981;
Existing Warrant Agreement” means the warrant agreement, dated May 13, 2021, by and between Artisan and Continental;
Extraordinary General Meeting” means an extraordinary general meeting of shareholders of Artisan held at 10:00 AM Eastern Time, on May 9, 2022 at Appleby (Cayman) Ltd., 71 Fort Street, George Town, Grand Cayman KY1-1104, Cayman Islands and virtually over the Internet via live audio webcast at https://www.cstproxy.com/artisanacquisition/2022;
Forward Purchase Investors” means Aspex Master Fund and Pacific Alliance Asia Opportunity Fund L.P.;
Founder Share” means a Class B ordinary share, par value $0.0001 per share, of Artisan;
Initial Closing” means the closing of the Initial Merger;
 
viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Initial Merger” means the merger between Artisan and Artisan Merger Sub, with Artisan Merger Sub being the surviving entity and remaining as a wholly owned subsidiary of PubCo;
IPO” means Artisan’s initial public offering, which was consummated on May 18, 2021;
mainland China” means the People’s Republic of China, excluding, solely for the purpose of this prospectus, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. The term “mainland Chinese” has a correlative meaning for the purpose of this prospectus;
Management Shareholder Support Agreement Amendment Deed” means that certain Deed of Amendment entered into on March 30, 2022 by and among Prenetics, Artisan, PubCo, Danny Yeung and Dr. Lawrence Tzang which amends the Prenetics Shareholder Support Agreement dated as of September 15, 2021 by and among Prenetics, Artisan, PubCo, Danny Yeung and Dr. Lawrence Tzang;
NASDAQ” means the Nasdaq Stock Market;
Plan of Acquisition Merger” means the plan of merger for the Acquisition Merger by and among Prenetics, Prenetics Merger Sub and PubCo;
Plan of Initial Merger” means the plan of merger for the Initial Merger by and among Artisan, Artisan Merger Sub and PubCo;
Prenetics” means Prenetics Holding Company Limited, formerly known as Prenetics Group Limited, an exempted company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands;
Prenetics Group” means Prenetics Holding Company Limited, together as a group with its subsidiaries, including its operating subsidiaries, and, prior to the termination of the VIE agreements on November 26, 2021, Shenzhen Discover Health Technology Co., Ltd., or the “VIE Entity”;
Prenetics HK” means Prenetics Limited, a limited liability company incorporated in Hong Kong;
Prenetics Merger Sub” means PGL Merger Limited, an exempted company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and a direct wholly owned subsidiary of PubCo;
Prenetics Operating Subsidiaries” means, collectively, the operating subsidiaries of Prenetics Holding Company Limited, which include Prenetics Limited, Prenetics EMEA Limited, Oxsed Limited, Prenetics Innovation Labs Private Limited and Prenetics Africa (Pty) Limited.
PubCo” means Prenetics Global Limited, an exempted company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands, or as the context requires, PubCo and its subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities;
SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission;
Sponsor” means Artisan LLC, a limited liability company registered under the laws of the Cayman Islands;
Sponsor Agreement” means that certain Sponsor Forfeiture and Conversion Agreement entered into on March 30, 2022 by and among Prenetics, Artisan, PubCo, Sponsor and the independent directors of Artisan;
Sponsor Support Agreement Amendment Deed” means that certain Deed of Amendment entered into on March 30, 2022 by and among Prenetics, Artisan, PubCo, Sponsor and the directors of Artisan which amends the Sponsor Support Agreement;
Units” means the units issued in the IPO, each consisting of one Artisan Public Share and one-third of one Artisan Public Warrant;
U.S. Dollars,” “US$,” “USD” and “$” means United States dollars, the legal currency of the United States;
Warrants” means warrants of PubCo, each entitling its holder to purchase 1.29 Class A Ordinary Share at an exercise price of $11.50 per 1.29 shares, subject to adjustment pursuant to the terms of the Assignment, Assumption and Amendment Agreement and the Existing Warrant Agreement.
 
ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in the securities covered by this prospectus. You should read the following summary together with the more detailed information in this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the information set forth in the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, any related prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus in their entirety before making an investment decision.
Overview
We are a major diagnostics and genetics testing products and services provider, with a team of more than 800 employees and operations across nine locations, including the U.K., Hong Kong, India, South Africa and Southeast Asia. Prenetics business was founded in 2014 with the mission to bring health closer to millions of people globally and decentralize healthcare by making the three pillars — Prevention, Diagnostics and Personalized Care — comprehensive and accessible to anyone, at anytime and anywhere. We intend to construct a global healthcare ecosystem to disrupt and decentralize the conventional healthcare system and improve its customers’ wellbeing through comprehensive genetic and diagnostic testing.
Recent Development
Business Combination
On September 15, 2021, we entered into a Business Combination Agreement (as amended by an Amendment to Business Combination Agreement dated as of March 30, 2022 (the “BCA Amendment”) and as may be further amended, supplemented or otherwise modified from time to time, the “Business Combination Agreement”), by and among the Company, Artisan, Artisan Merger Sub, Prenetics Merger Sub and Prenetics. Pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, (i) Artisan merged with and into Artisan Merger Sub, with Artisan Merger Sub surviving and remaining as our wholly owned subsidiary and (ii) following the Initial Merger, Prenetics Merger Sub merged with and into Prenetics, with Prenetics being the surviving entity and becoming our wholly owned subsidiary.
As part of the Business Combination: (i) each of Artisan’s units (each consisting of one Class A ordinary share, par value $0.0001 per share, of Artisan and one-third of one redeemable warrant, each entitling its holder to purchase one Artisan Public Share at an exercise price of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustment issued and outstanding immediately prior to the effective time of the Initial Merger (the “Initial Merger Effective Time”) was separated into one Artisan Public Share and one-third of an Artisan Public Warrant; (ii) each Artisan Public Share issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Initial Merger Effective Time (excluding Artisan Public Shares that have been redeemed and Artisan treasury shares) was cancelled in exchange for the right to receive 1.29 newly issued Class A Ordinary Share; (iii) each Artisan Public Warrant outstanding immediately prior to the Initial Merger Effective Time was assumed by the Company and converted into a Warrant, subject to substantially the same terms and conditions prior to the Initial Merger Effective Time; (iv) each of the ordinary shares of Prenetics, par value $0.0001 per share (“Prenetics Ordinary Shares”) and the preferred shares of Prenetics, par value $0.0001 per share (“Prenetics Preferred Shares” and collectively with Prenetics Ordinary Shares, “Prenetics Shares”) (excluding shares that are held by Prenetics shareholders that exercise and perfect their relevant dissenters’ rights, Prenetics Key Executive Shares (as defined below) and Prenetics treasury shares) issued and outstanding immediately prior to the effective time of the Acquisition Merger (the “Acquisition Effective Time”) was cancelled in exchange for the right to receive such fraction of Class A Ordinary Share that is equal to the quotient obtained by dividing $20.330979812 by $10.00 (the “Exchange Ratio”), or 2.033097981 Class A Ordinary Shares for each Prenetics Share; and (v) each of the Prenetics Shares held by Danny Yeung (the “Prenetics Key Executive Shares”), the co-founder and chief executive officer of Prenetics, was cancelled in exchange for the right to receive such fraction of a newly issued convertible Class B Ordinary Share (collectively with Class A Ordinary Shares, “Ordinary Shares”) that is equal to the Exchange Ratio.
Substantially concurrently with the execution and delivery of the Business Combination Agreement, (i) the Company, Artisan and certain third-party investors (the “PIPE Investors”) entered into share
 
1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
subscription agreements (the “PIPE Subscription Agreements”) pursuant to which the PIPE Investors committed to subscribe for and purchase, in the aggregate, 6,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares for $10 per share for an aggregate purchase price equal to $60,000,000; and (ii) the Forward Purchase Agreements entered into at the time of Artisan’s initial public offering with Aspex Master Fund and Pacific Alliance Asia Opportunity Fund L.P. were amended by the Deeds of Novation and Amendment as of September 15, 2021, pursuant to which Aspex Master Fund and Pacific Alliance Asia Opportunity Fund L.P. committed to subscribe for and purchase, in the aggregate, 6,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares and 1,500,000 Warrants for an aggregate purchase price equal to $60,000,000 (such amended Forward Purchase Agreements, the “Amended Forward Purchase Agreements”). The PIPE Subscription Agreements were amended by the Amendment Agreements dated as of March 30, 2022 (the PIPE Subscription Agreements, as amended, the “Amended PIPE Subscription Agreements”), pursuant to which, the number of Class A Ordinary Shares to be purchased by the PIPE Investors was increased to 7,740,000. On the Closing Date, the PIPE Investors purchased 7,198,200 Class A Ordinary Shares for an aggregate purchase price of $55,800,000. The Deeds of Novation and Amendment were amended by the Deeds of Amendment to Deed of Novation and Amendment on March 30, 2022, pursuant to which, among other things, the number of Class A Ordinary Shares to be purchased by each of Aspex Master Fund and Pacific Alliance Asia Opportunity Fund L.P. was increased to 3,870,000. On April 29, 2022, the Company, Artisan, Pacific Alliance Asia Opportunity Fund L.P. and PAG Quantitative Strategies Trading Limited (together with Aspex Master Fund, the “Forward Purchase Investors”) entered into a Deed of Assignment, pursuant to which Pacific Alliance Asia Opportunity Fund L.P. assigned to PAG Quantitative Strategies Trading Limited its rights and obligations under the Amended Forward Purchase Agreements and the Deeds of Amendment to Deed of Novation and Amendment.
In connection with and concurrently with the execution of the BCA Amendment, Prenetics, Artisan and the Company entered into the Sponsor Agreement with the Sponsor’s and the Artisan’s independent directors, pursuant to and subject to the terms of which, among other things, immediately prior to the consummation of the Initial Merger, Sponsor and the Artisan independent directors contributed, transferred, assigned, conveyed and delivered to Artisan all of their respective right, title and interest in, to and under the Founder Shares held by them in exchange for Artisan Public Shares, and the Sponsor also surrendered and forfeited certain Private Placement Warrants for no consideration. In connection with the foregoing and immediately prior to the consummation of the Initial Merger, (i) all 9,133,558 outstanding Founder Shares held by Sponsor were and converted into the number of Artisan Public Shares equal to (x) 6,933,558, divided by (y) the Class A Exchange Ratio of 1.29; (ii) the aggregate of 100,000 outstanding Founder Shares held by the Artisan independent directors were exchanged and converted into the number of Artisan Public Shares equal to (x) 100,000, divided by (y) the Class A Exchange Ratio of 1.29; and (iii) the Sponsor automatically irrevocably surrendered and forfeited to Artisan for no consideration, as a contribution to capital, such number of Private Placement Warrants equal to (x) 5,857,898 minus (x) the quotient obtained by dividing 5,857,898 by the Class A Exchange Ratio of 1.29.
The Business Combination was consummated on May 18, 2022. The transaction was unanimously approved by Artisan’s board of directors and was approved at the extraordinary general meeting of Artisan’s shareholders held on May 9, 2022, or the “Extraordinary General Meeting.” Artisan’s shareholders also voted to approve all other proposals presented at the Extraordinary General Meeting. As a result of the Business Combination, Artisan has become our wholly owned subsidiary. On May 18, 2022, Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants commenced trading on The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC, or “NASDAQ” under the symbols “PRE” and “PRENW,” respectively.
 
2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Financial Results for the Three Months ended March 31, 2022
Unaudited condensed consolidated statements of financial position
(Expressed in United States dollars unless otherwise indicated)
March 31,
2022
US$
December 31,
2021
US$
Assets
Property, plant and equipment
13,889,642 13,037,192
Intangible assets
23,866,729 23,826,282
Goodwill
3,841,604 3,978,065
Deferred tax assets
82,387 79,702
Other non-current assets
637,816 693,548
Non-current assets
42,318,178 41,614,789
Inventories
15,684,851 6,829,226
Trade receivables
59,248,964 47,041,538
Deposits and prepayments
7,735,135 7,406,197
Other receivables
427,419 411,559
Amounts due from related companies
9,670 9,060
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss
9,906,000 9,906,000
Cash and cash equivalents
34,246,918 35,288,952
Current assets
127,258,957 106,892,532
Total assets
169,577,135 148,507,321
Liabilities
Deferred tax liabilities
740,057 659,498
Preference shares liabilities
517,102,888 486,404,770
Lease liabilities
3,242,210 3,600,232
Non-current liabilities
521,085,155 490,664,500
Trade payables
14,216,664 9,979,726
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
31,374,348 36,280,298
Contract liabilities
11,548,746 9,587,245
Lease liabilities
1,503,240 1,666,978
Bank loans
12,076,364
Tax payable
2,807,049 1,223,487
Current liabilities
73,526,411 58,737,734
Total liabilities
594,611,566 549,402,234
Equity
Share capital
1,493 1,493
Reserves
(424,950,903) (400,811,431)
Total equity deficiency to equity shareholders of the Company
(424,949,410) (400,809,938)
Non-controlling interests
(85,021) (84,975)
Total equity deficiency
(425,034,431) (400,894,913)
Total equity and liabilities
169,577,135 148,507,321
 
3

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Unaudited condensed consolidated statements of profit or loss and other comprehensive income
(Expressed in United States dollars unless otherwise indicated, except for share)
For the three months ended
March 31,
2022
US$
December 31,
2021
US$
March 31,
2021
US$
Revenue
92,044,049 64,716,261 57,454,154
Direct costs
(56,006,216) (40,950,808) (35,519,012)
Gross profit
36,037,833 23,765,453 21,935,142
Other income and other net (losses)/gains
(29,011) (60,357) 551,041
Share of loss of a joint venture
(120,873)
Selling and distribution expenses
(5,283,146) (10,356,487) (2,354,496)
Research and development expenses
(3,821,490) (5,459,872) (1,293,175)
Administrative and other operating expenses
(27,454,847) (38,641,860) (7,661,198)
(Loss)/profit from operations
(550,661) (30,753,123) 11,056,441
Finance costs
(2,491,796) (2,462,779) (35,087)
Fair value loss on convertible securities
(7,266,092)
Fair value loss on preference shares liabilities
(28,276,001) (53,513,591)
Fair value loss on financial assets at fair value through profit or loss
(94,000)
Loss on disposal of a subsidiary
(292,132)
(Loss)/profit before taxation
(31,318,458) (87,115,625) 3,755,262
Income tax (expense)/credit
(1,667,438) 1,372,620 (1,840,688)
(Loss)/profit for the period
(32,985,896) (85,743,005) 1,914,574
Other comprehensive income for the period
Item that may be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss:
Exchange differences on translation of:
 –  financial statements of subsidiaries and a joint venture outside Hong Kong
(530,738) 1,266,712 (3,275)
Total comprehensive income for the period
(33,516,634) (84,476,293) 1,911,299
(Loss)/profit attributable to:
Equity shareholders of the Company
(32,985,850) (85,742,978) 1,917,019
Non-controlling interests
(46) (27) (2,445)
(32,985,896) (85,743,005) 1,914,574
Total comprehensive income attributable to:
Equity shareholders of the Company
(33,516,588) (84,476,266) 1,913,744
Non-controlling interests
(46) (27) (2,445)
(33,516,634) (84,476,293) 1,911,299
 
4

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
For the three months ended
March 31,
2022
US$
December 31,
2021
US$
March 31,
2021
US$
(Loss)/earnings per share
Basic (loss)/earnings per share
(2.21) (5.87) 0.13
Diluted (loss)/earnings per share
(2.21) (5.87) 0.04
Weighted average number of common shares:
Basic
14,932,033 14,596,997 14,543,817
Diluted
14,932,033 14,596,997 49,635,951
Total Revenues
Total revenues were US$92.0 million, representing an increase of 60.2% from the same period in 2021 and 42.2% from the previous quarter. This uplift was mainly driven by strong demand for our diagnostics and genetic testing services, including contract awards for provision of COVID-19 testing services granted by the Hong Kong government and in the U.K. Prenetics has performed and delivered more than 22 million laboratory and at-home tests globally as of May 2022.
Gross Profit and Gross Margin
Gross profit increased by US$14.1 million, or 64.3%, from US$21.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 to US$36.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022. The increase in gross profit was primarily due to the increase in revenue outpacing the increase in direct cost.
Gross margin increased from 38.2% for the three months ended March 31, 2021 to 39.2% for the three months ended March 31, 2022, primarily due to improved cost management in diagnostic testing services.
(Loss)/profit from operations
(Loss)/profit from operations decreased by US$11.5 million, or 105.0%, from profit from operations of US$11.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 to loss from operations of US$0.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022. The loss was primarily due to increase of non-cash share-based payment associated with an increase in the equity value of our Company.
Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted Gross Profit (non-IFRS)
Adjusted EBITDA (non-IFRS)1 was US$12.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022, compared with adjusted EBITDA (non-IFRS) of US$12.5 million for the same period in 2021. Adjusted gross profit (non-IFRS)2 was US$36.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022, compared with adjusted gross profit (non-IFRS) of US$22.1 million for the same period in 2021. The increase was mainly due to increased operating efficiencies and scalability of the business.
Cash Balance
As of March 31, 2022, we had cash and cash equivalents of US$34.2 million, compared with US$35.3 million as of December 31, 2021.
1
Adjusted EBITDA (non-IFRS) represents (loss)/profit from operations under IFRS before equity-settled share-based payment expenses, depreciation and amortization, other strategic financing, transactional expense and non-operating expense, and finance income, exchange gain or loss. See the section titled “Unaudited Financial Information and Non-IFRS Financial Measures” and the table captioned “Reconciliation of (Loss)/profit from Operations under IFRS and Adjusted EBITDA (Non-IFRS)” for more details.
2
Adjusted gross profit (non-IFRS) represents gross profit before deduction of depreciation and amortization expenses. See the section titled “Unaudited Financial Information and Non-IFRS Financial Measures” and the table captioned “Reconciliation of Gross Profit under IFRS and Adjusted Gross Profit (Non-IFRS)” for more details.
 
5

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Unaudited Financial Information and Non-IFRS Financial Measures
To supplement our consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”), we are providing non-IFRS measures, Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted gross profit. These non-IFRS financial measures are not based on any standardized methodology prescribed by IFRS and are not necessarily comparable to similarly-titled measures presented by other companies. We believe these non-IFRS financial measures are useful to investors in evaluating our ongoing operating results and trends.
We are excluding from some or all of its non-IFRS operating results (1) Equity-settled share-based payment expenses, (2) depreciation and amortization, (3) finance income and exchange gain or loss, and (4) other discretionary items determined by management. These non-IFRS financial measures are limited in value because they exclude certain items that may have a material impact on the reported financial results. We account for this limitation by analyzing results on an IFRS basis as well as a non-IFRS basis and also by providing IFRS measures in our public disclosures.
In addition, other companies, including companies in the same industry, may not use the same non-IFRS measures or may calculate these metrics in a different manner than management or may use other financial measures to evaluate their performance, all of which could reduce the usefulness of these non-IFRS measures as comparative measures. Because of these limitations, our non-IFRS financial measures should not be considered in isolation from, or as a substitute for, financial information prepared in accordance with IFRS. Investors are encouraged to review the non-IFRS reconciliations provided in the tables below.
Reconciliation of (Loss)/profit from Operations under IFRS and Adjusted EBITDA (Non-IFRS)
For the three months ended
March 31,
2022
US$
December 31,
2021
US$
March 31,
2021
US$
(Loss)/profit from operations under IFRS
(550,661) (30,753,123) 11,056,441
Equity-settled share-based payment expenses
9,377,115 9,519,883 246,697
Depreciation and amortization
2,155,295 3,001,225 1,127,825
Other strategic financing, transactional
expense and non-operating expense
1,695,185 12,286,488 502,684
Finance income, exchange gain or loss, net
31,772 44,793 (397,335)
Adjusted EBITDA (Non-IFRS)
12,708,706 (5,900,734) 12,536,312
Reconciliation of Gross Profit under IFRS and Adjusted Gross Profit (Non-IFRS)
For the three months ended
March 31,
2022
US$
December 31,
2021
US$
March 31,
2021
US$
Gross profit under IFRS
36,037,833 23,765,453 21,935,142
Depreciation and amortization
417,619 380,264 205,392
Adjusted gross profit (Non-IFRS)
36,455,452 24,145,717 22,140,534
Emerging Growth Company
We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we will remain an “emerging growth company” until the earliest to occur of (i) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the closing of the Business Combination, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our shares held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of our
 
6

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
prior second fiscal quarter, we have been subject to Exchange Act reporting requirements for at least 12 calendar months; and filed at least one annual report, and (ii) the date on which we issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period. We intend to take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to most other public companies, whether or not they are classified as “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, an exemption from the provisions of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requiring that our independent registered public accounting firm provide an attestation report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation.
In addition, Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts “emerging growth companies” from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with certain other public companies difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
Furthermore, even after we no longer qualify as an “emerging growth company,” as long as we continue to qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we will be exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including, but not limited to, the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, or current reports on Form 8-K, upon the occurrence of specified significant events. In addition, we will not be required to file annual reports and financial statements with the SEC as promptly as U.S. domestic companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act, and are not required to comply with Regulation FD, which restricts the selective disclosure of material information.
Foreign Private Issuer
We are subject to the information reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or “the Exchange Act,” that are applicable to “foreign private issuers,” and under those requirements we file reports with the SEC. As a foreign private issuer, we are not subject to the same requirements that are imposed upon U.S. domestic issuers by the SEC. Under the Exchange Act, we are subject to reporting obligations that, in certain respects, are less detailed and less frequent than those of U.S. domestic reporting companies. For example, we are not required to issue quarterly reports, proxy statements that comply with the requirements applicable to U.S. domestic reporting companies, or individual executive compensation information that is as detailed as that required of U.S. domestic reporting companies. We also have four months after the end of each fiscal year to file our annual reports with the SEC and are not required to file current reports as frequently or promptly as U.S. domestic reporting companies. Furthermore, our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the requirements to report transactions in our equity securities and from the short-swing profit liability provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act. As a foreign private issuer, we are also not subject to the requirements of Regulation FD (Fair Disclosure) promulgated under the Exchange Act. These exemptions and leniencies reduce the frequency and scope of information and protections available to you in comparison to those applicable to shareholders of U.S. domestic reporting companies.
Our Corporate Information
We are an exempted company limited by shares incorporated on July 21, 2021 under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our registered office is at Unit 701-706, K11 Atelier King’s Road, 728 King’s Road,
 
7

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Quarry Bay, Hong Kong and our telephone number is +852-2210-9588. Our website is https://www.prenetics.com/. The information contained in, or accessible through, our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.
The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, such as we, that file electronically, with the SEC at www.sec.gov.
Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency Global Inc., 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor New York, N.Y. 10168.
Our Organizational Structure
The following diagram depicts a simplified organizational structure of the Company as of the date hereof.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2212435d4-fc_mergerbw.jpg]
Summary Risk Factors
Investing in our securities entails a high degree of risk as more fully described under “Risk Factors.” You should carefully consider such risks before deciding to invest in our securities.
We face various legal and operational risks associated with doing business in Hong Kong, which could result in a material change in our operations in Hong Kong, cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless, and significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to accept foreign investments and offer or continue to offer securities to foreign investors. These risks include, but are not limited to:

We are a Cayman Islands holding company with operations primarily conducted through our operating subsidiaries. Accordingly, our shareholders will be holding equity interest in a Cayman Islands holding company and not equity of our operating subsidiaries.

Historically, we held a minority interest in a genomics business in mainland China through Shenzhen Discover Health Technology Co., Ltd. (the “VIE Entity”), a PRC limited liability company, by entering into a series of contractual arrangements with the VIE Entity and its nominee shareholders through our wholly owned PRC subsidiary, Qianhai Prenetics Technology (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd. (the “WFOE”). On November 26, 2021, the agreements governing the VIE Entity were terminated with immediate effect. As a result, our corporate structure no longer contains any VIE. While our current corporate structure does not contain any VIE and we have no intention establishing any VIEs in PRC in the future, if in the future our structure were to contain a VIE, the PRC regulatory authorities could disallow the VIE structure, which would likely result in a material adverse change in our operations, and our securities may decline significantly in value or become worthless.

Our business, financial condition and results of operations, and/or the value of our securities or our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors may be materially and adversely affected to the extent the laws and regulations of the PRC become applicable to us. In that case, we may be subject to the risks and uncertainties associated with the evolving laws and regulations in the PRC,
 
8

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
their interpretation and implementation, and the legal and regulatory system in the PRC more generally, including with respect to the enforcement of laws and the possibility of changes of rules and regulations with little or no advance notice. Although we currently do not have any business operations in mainland China, and our corporate structure does not contain any variable interest entity, given our substantial operations in Hong Kong and the Chinese government’s significant oversight authority over the conduct of business in Hong Kong, and we face risks and uncertainties associated with the complex and evolving PRC laws and regulations and as to whether and how the PRC government statements and regulatory developments, such as those relating to VIE, data and cyberspace security, and anti-monopoly concerns, would be applicable to a company like us. The Chinese government may, in the future, seek to affect operations of any company with any level of operations in mainland China or Hong Kong, including its ability to offer securities to investors, list its securities on a U.S. or other foreign exchange, conduct its business or accept foreign investment. Should the Chinese government seek to affect operations of any company with any level of operations in Hong Kong, or should certain PRC laws and regulations or these statements or regulatory actions become applicable to us in the future, it would likely have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations, our ability to accept foreign investments and our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors on a U.S. or other international securities exchange, any of which may cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless. For example, if the PRC regulatory actions on data security or other data-related laws and regulations were to apply to us, we could become subject to certain cybersecurity and data privacy obligations, including the potential requirement to conduct a cybersecurity review for our listing at a foreign stock exchange, and the failure to meet such obligations could result in penalties and other regulatory actions against us and may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Our securities may be delisted or prohibited from being traded “over-the-counter” under the HFCA Act if we have filed an annual report containing an audit report issued by a registered public accounting firm that the PCAOB has determined it is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a position taken by an authority in the foreign jurisdiction and is identified by the SEC as a “Commission-Identified Issuer” for three consecutive years. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report on its determinations that it is unable to inspect or investigate completely PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and in Hong Kong, because of positions taken by one or more authorities in such jurisdictions. Since our auditor is located in Hong Kong, it is included on a list of audit firms the PCAOB determined it is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a position taken by one or more authorities in Hong Kong, and is therefore subject to the PCAOB’s determination. The delisting or the cessation of trading “over-the-counter” of our securities, or the threat of being delisted or prohibited, may materially and adversely affect the value and/or liquidity of your investment. The Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, passed by the U.S. Senate and if enacted, would require foreign companies to comply with the PCAOB audits within two consecutive years instead of three consecutive years and therefore reduce the time period for triggering the listing and trading prohibitions from three years to two years. Additionally, since the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct full inspections or investigations of our auditor, our investors would be deprived of the benefits of such inspections or investigations.

The mainland Chinese government has significant oversight, discretion or control over the manner in which companies incorporated under the laws of mainland China must conduct their business activities, but as we operate in Hong Kong and not mainland China, the mainland Chinese government currently does not exert direct oversight and discretion over the manner in which we conduct our business activities. However, there is no guarantee that the mainland Chinese government will not seek to intervene or influence our operations at any time. If we were to become subject to such oversight, discretion or control, including over overseas offerings of securities and/or foreign investments, it may result in a material adverse change in our operations, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or be worthless, which would materially affect the interests of the investors. There also can be no assurance that the mainland Chinese government will not intervene or impose restrictions on our ability to transfer or distribute cash within our organization, which could result
 
9

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
in an inability or prohibition on making transfers or distributions to entities outside of Hong Kong and adversely affect our business. See “Selected Historical Financial Data of Prenetics” for our condensed consolidating schedules, including the WFOE, the VIE Entity and other subsidiaries of us, respectively, starting on page 74 of this prospectus.

Implementation of the National Security Law in Hong Kong involves uncertainty, and the policy pronouncements by the PRC government regarding business activities of U.S.-listed Chinese businesses may negatively impact our existing and future operations in Hong Kong.

We are an exempted company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and we conduct a majority of our operations outside the United States. Substantially all of our assets are located outside the United States. A majority of our officers and directors reside outside the United States and in Hong Kong, and a substantial portion of the assets of those persons are located outside of the United States. None of our officers or directors reside in mainland China. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon our directors or officers who reside in Hong Kong or outside the United States, to bring original actions in Hong Kong or outside the United States based on the securities laws of the United States against our directors or officers who reside in Hong Kong or outside the United States, or to enforce judgments obtained in the United States courts against our directors or officers in Hong Kong or outside the United States. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to the Company's Securities — You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands, and we conduct substantially all of our operations, and a majority of our directors and executive officers reside, outside of the United States.”
For additional detail on these and other risks, see “Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Doing Business in Hong Kong” starting on page 13 of this prospectus.
In addition, there are various risks related to our business and operations, which include, but are not limited to:

A significant portion of our historical revenue was, and our near-term revenue will be generated, from our COVID-19 testing services, the demand for which may be substantially reduced with the production and widely administered use of an efficacious vaccine or treatment for COVID-19, and our failure to drive significant revenues from other products and services and expand our overall customer base would harm our business and results of operation.

The diagnostic testing market, particularly with respect to COVID-19 testing services, is highly competitive, and many of our competitors are larger, better established and have greater financial and other resources.

The consumer genetic testing market is highly competitive, and many of our competitors are more established and have stronger marketing capabilities and greater financial resources, which presents a continuous threat to the success of our consumer genetic testing business.

Our near-term success is highly dependent on the successful launch of Circle HealthPod and the continued commercialization of our COVID-19 testing services and other products in our target geographies. If our existing or new service or product offerings are unable to attain market acceptance or be successfully commercialized in all or any of these jurisdictions, our business and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

We rely substantially on third-party contract manufacturers for the manufacturing, quality-testing, assembly and shipping of our COVID-19 test kit and other testing products. Any termination of significant rights under the existing arrangements would disrupt our ability to sell and distribute our COVID-19 test kit and other products until and unless we find new contract manufacturers, which would materially and adversely affect our business.

We have a number of pipeline products that are currently in the R&D phase, including Circle Medical, Circle SnapShot, future assays of Circle HealthPod, Circle One and F1x and Fem, and may not be successful in our efforts to develop any of these or other products into marketable products.
 
10

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Any failure to develop these or other products or any delay in the development could adversely affect our business and future prospects.

If we are not successful in leveraging our platform to discover, develop and commercialize additional products, our ability to expand our business and achieve our strategic objectives would be impaired.

If our products and services do not deliver reliable results as expected, our reputation, business and operating results will be adversely affected.
For additional detail on these and other risks, see “Risk Factors — Key Risks Relating to Our Business” starting on page 18 of this prospectus.
 
11

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
THE OFFERING
The summary below describes the principal terms of the offering. The “Description of Share Capital” section of this prospectus contains a more detailed description of the Company’s Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants.
Securities being registered for resale by the Selling Securityholders named in the prospectus
(i)
Up to 60,441,798 Class A Ordinary Shares, which includes:

7,198,200 Class A Ordinary Shares issued in the PIPE Investment;

7,740,000 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to the Forward Purchase Investors;

6,933,558 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to the Sponsor pursuant to the Initial Merger;

100,000 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to the Artisan Directors pursuant to the Initial Merger;

9,713,864 Class A Ordinary Shares issuable upon the conversion of 9,713,864 Class B Ordinary Shares issued to Da Yeung Limited pursuant to the Acquisition Merger; and

a total of 28,756,176 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to certain prior shareholders of Prenetics pursuant to the Acquisition Merger,
(ii)
up to 6,041,007 Private Warrants issued to the Sponsor and the Forward Purchase Investors pursuant to the Initial Merger, and
(iii)
up to 7,792,898 Class A Ordinary Shares issuable upon exercises of the Private Warrants.
Terms of Warrants
Each Warrant entitles the holder to purchase 1.29 Class A Ordinary Shares at a price of $11.50 per 1.29 shares, subject to adjustment pursuant to the terms of the Assignment, Assumption and Amendment Agreement and the Existing Warrant Agreement. Our Warrants expire on May 18, 2027, at 5:00 p.m., New York City time.
Offering prices
The securities offered by this prospectus may be offered and sold at prevailing market prices, privately negotiated prices or such other prices as the Selling Securityholders may determine. See “Plan of Distribution.”
Ordinary shares issued and outstanding prior to any exercise of Warrants
101,265,483 Class A Ordinary Shares and 9,713,864 Class B Shares.
Warrants issued and
outstanding
17,352,393 Warrants.
Use of proceeds
All of the securities offered by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the Selling Securityholders for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from such sales, except with respect to amounts received by us upon exercise of the Warrants to the extent such Warrants are exercised for cash.
 
12

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Assuming the exercise of all outstanding warrants for cash, we would receive aggregate proceeds of approximately $199.6 million. However, we will only receive such proceeds if all the Warrant holders exercise all of their Warrants. The exercise price of our Warrants is $11.50 per 1.29 shares (or an effective price of $8.91 per share), subject to adjustment. We believe that the likelihood that warrant holders determine to exercise their warrants, and therefore the amount of cash proceeds that we would receive, is dependent upon the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares. If the market price for our Class A Ordinary Shares is less than the exercise price of the warrants (on a per share basis), we believe that warrant holders will be very unlikely to exercise any of their warrants, and accordingly, we will not receive any such proceeds. There is no assurance that the warrants will be “in the money” prior to their expiration or that the warrant holders will exercise their warrants. As of June 9, 2022, the closing price of our Class A Ordinary Shares was $4.43 per share. Holders of the Private Warrants have the option to exercise the Private Warrants on a cashless basis in accordance with the Existing Warrant Agreement. To the extent that any warrants are exercised on a cashless basis, the amount of cash we would receive from the exercise of the warrants will decrease.
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid any cash dividend on our Class A Ordinary Shares. We currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. Any further determination to pay dividends on our ordinary shares would be at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and would depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions, and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.
Market for our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants
Our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants are listed on NASDAQ under the trading symbols “PRE” and “PRENW,” respectively.
Risk factors
Prospective investors should carefully consider the “Risk Factors” for a discussion of certain factors that should be considered before buying the securities offered hereby.
 
13

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
RISK FACTORS
You should carefully consider the following risk factors, together with all of the other information included in this prospectus, before making an investment decision. The occurrence of one or more of the events or circumstances described in these risk factors, alone or in combination with other events or circumstances, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, prospects and trading price. The risks discussed below may not prove to be exhaustive and are based on certain assumptions made by us, which later may prove to be incorrect or incomplete. We may face additional risks and uncertainties that are not presently known to us, or that are currently deemed immaterial, but which may also ultimately have an adverse effect on us. The trading price and value of our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus and any prospectus supplement or related free writing prospectus also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks faced by us described below and elsewhere in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement or related free writing prospectus.
Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry
Risks Relating to Doing Business in Hong Kong
Our business, financial condition and results of operations, and/or the value of our securities or our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors may be materially and adversely affected to the extent the laws and regulations of the PRC become applicable to us. In that case, we may be subject to the risks and uncertainties associated with the evolving laws and regulations in the PRC, their interpretation and implementation, and the legal and regulatory system in the PRC more generally, including with respect to the enforcement of laws and the possibility of changes of rules and regulations with little or no advance notice.
We currently own three subsidiaries incorporated under the laws of mainland China with no business operations. Two of these subsidiaries are inactive and the third subsidiary historically held a minority interest in a genomics business in mainland China (the “China Investment”) through a series of contractual arrangements with a PRC domestic company (the “VIE Entity”). For the years ended December 31, 2019, December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2021, we generated all of our revenue from our businesses outside of mainland China, and for the financial year ended December 31, 2020, we assessed the recoverable amount of our equity interest in the China Investment and based on such assessment, the carrying amount of the interest in the China Investment was written down to our recoverable amount of nil, which was determined based on the value in use. On November 26, 2021, each of the agreements governing the VIE Entity was terminated with immediate effect. Moreover, we do not sell any testing products in mainland China or solicit any customer or collect, host or manage any customer’s personal data in mainland China. Nor do we have access to any personal data of any customer in mainland China that is collected, hosted or managed by the China Investment. Accordingly, we believe that the laws and regulations of mainland China including the developments in cybersecurity laws and regulations of mainland China, do not currently have any material impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations or the listing of our securities, notwithstanding the fact that we have substantial operations in Hong Kong.
Pursuant to the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (the “Basic Law”), which is a national law of the PRC and the constitutional document for Hong Kong, national laws of the PRC shall not be applied in Hong Kong except for those listed in Annex III of the Basic Law and applied locally by promulgation or local legislation. The Basic Law expressly provides that the national laws of the PRC which may be listed in Annex III of the Basic Law shall be confined to those relating to defense and foreign affairs as well as other matters outside the autonomy of Hong Kong. While the National People’s Congress of the PRC has the power to amend the Basic Law, the Basic Law also expressly provides that no amendment to the Basic Law shall contravene the established basic policies of the PRC regarding Hong Kong. As a result, national laws of the PRC not listed in Annex III of the Basic Law, including the enacted version of PRC Data Security Law, the Measures for Cybersecurity Review (“Review Measures”) issued by the CAC, and the PRC Personal Information Protection Law, do not apply in Hong Kong.
If certain PRC laws and regulations were to become applicable in Hong Kong in the future, the application of such laws and regulations may have a material adverse impact on our business, financial
 
14

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
condition and results of operations and our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, any of which may cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless. In addition, the laws and regulations in the PRC are evolving, and their enactment timetable, interpretation and implementation involve significant uncertainties. To the extent any PRC laws and regulations become applicable to our business, we may be subject to the risks and uncertainties associated with the legal system in the PRC including with respect to the enforcement of laws and the possibility of changes of rules and regulations with little or no advance notice.
The mainland Chinese government has significant oversight, discretion and control over the manner in which companies incorporated under the laws of mainland China must conduct their business activities, but as we operate in Hong Kong and not mainland China, the mainland Chinese government currently does not exert direct oversight and discretion over the manner in which we conduct our business activities. However, there is no guarantee that the mainland Chinese government will not seek to intervene or influence our operations at any time. If we were to become subject to such oversight, discretion or control, including over overseas offerings of securities and/or foreign investments, it may result in a material adverse change in our operations, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or be worthless, which would materially affect the interests of the investors.
We currently do not have any business operations in mainland China or generate revenues from any businesses in mainland China. Historically, we held a minority interest in a genomics business in mainland China through a VIE Entity, but on November 26, 2021, each of the agreements governing the VIE Entity was terminated with immediate effect. Accordingly, we believe that the laws and regulations of mainland China do not currently have any material impact on our business operations, and the mainland Chinese government does not currently exert direct influence or intervention over the manner in which we conduct our business. However, because of our substantial operations in Hong Kong and given the mainland Chinese government’s significant oversight authority over the conduct of business in Hong Kong generally, there is no guarantee that we will not be subject to such direct influence or intervention in the future due to changes in laws or other unforeseeable reasons. There is always a risk that the mainland Chinese government may, in the future, seek to affect operations of any company with any level of operations in mainland China or Hong Kong, including its ability to offer securities to investors, list its securities on a U.S. or other foreign exchange, conduct its business or accept foreign investment. See “— Our business, financial condition and results of operations, and/or the value of our securities or our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors may be materially and adversely affected to the extent the laws and regulations of the PRC become applicable to us.” There also can be no assurance that the PRC government will not intervene or impose restrictions on our ability to transfer or distribute cash within our organization, which could result in an inability or prohibition on making transfers or distributions to entities outside of Hong Kong and adversely affect our business. See “Selected Historical Financial Data of Prenetics” for our condensed consolidating schedules, including the WFOE, the VIE Entity and other subsidiaries of us, respectively, starting on page 74 of this prospectus.
The PRC legal system is evolving rapidly and the PRC laws, regulations, and rules may change quickly with little or no advance notice. In particular, because these laws, rules and regulations are relatively new, and because of the limited number of published decisions and the non-precedential nature of these decisions, the interpretation of these laws, rules and regulations may contain inconsistencies, the enforcement of which involves uncertainties.
If we were to become subject to the direct intervention or influence of the mainland Chinese government at any time due to changes in laws or other unforeseeable reasons, it may require a material change in our operations and/or result in increased costs necessary to comply with existing and newly adopted laws and regulations or penalties for any failure to comply. In addition, the market prices and value of our securities could be adversely affected as a result of anticipated negative impacts of any such government actions, as well as negative investor sentiment towards Hong Kong-based companies subject to direct mainland Chinese government oversight and regulation, regardless of our actual operating performance. There can be no assurance that the mainland Chinese government will not intervene in or influence our current or future operations at any time.
The PRC government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers. Based on the advice
 
15

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
of outside PRC counsel, DaHui Lawyers, we believe that we are currently not required to obtain any permission or approval from the CSRC, CAC or any other PRC governmental authority to operate our business or to list our securities on a U.S. securities exchange or issue securities to foreign investors.
With respect to the issuance of securities to foreign investors, the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestics Enterprises by Foreign Investors (“M&A Rules”) include, among other things, provisions that purport to require any offshore special purpose vehicle that is controlled by PRC companies or individuals and formed for the purpose of seeking a public listing on an overseas stock exchange through acquisition of PRC domestic companies to obtain the approval of the CSRC prior to the listing and trading of its securities on an overseas stock exchange. On September 21, 2006, the CSRC published on its official website procedures specifying documents and materials required to be submitted to it by any such special purpose vehicle seeking CSRC’s approval of overseas listings. However, substantial uncertainty remains regarding the scope and applicability of the M&A Rules and the CSRC approval requirement to offshore special purpose vehicles.
The Review Measures have come into effect on February 15, 2022. The Review Measures stipulate that cybersecurity review is mandatory where a network platform operator that has personal information of more than one million users seeks to list overseas. As advised by our outside PRC counsel, DaHui Lawyers, the offering of our securities is not subject to the foregoing cybersecurity review. That said, the Review Measures provide CAC and relevant authorities certain discretion to initiate cybersecurity review where any network product or service or any data handling activity is considered to affect or may affect national security, which may lead to uncertainties in relation to the Review Measures’ impact on our operations or the offering of our securities.
Further, on July 6, 2021, the General Office of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities in accordance with the Law (“Opinions”). These Opinions have laid the groundwork for strengthening the Chinese government’s monitoring of illegal securities activities in China and the supervision of overseas listings by China-based companies. The Opinions generally provide that existing laws and regulations regarding data security, cross-border data transmission, and the protection of classified information should be further supplemented, and that the PRC government will seek to deepen its cross- border audit supervision cooperation with the regulatory bodies in other countries in law-based and reciprocal manner. As of the date of this prospectus, official guidance and related implementation rules that elaborate on the general provisions of the Opinions have not yet been issued, and therefore how to interpret the Opinions remains unclear at this stage. In their current form, the Opinions are too general to be implemented at their current stage, and no specific procedures or approvals are expressly specified or implicated that would need to be carried out by us in advance of our proposed listing.
Based on the understanding of the current PRC laws and regulations, outside PRC counsel, DaHui Lawyers, has advised that we are not required to obtain any prior permission under the M&A Rules or the Opinions from any PRC governmental authorities (including the CSRC) for consummating this offering, given that: (a) the CSRC currently has not issued any definitive rule or interpretation concerning whether offerings like ours are subject to the M&A Rules; and (b) we are not controlled by PRC companies or individuals nor formed for the purpose of seeking a public listing on an overseas stock exchange through acquisition of PRC domestic companies. In addition, the offering of our securities is not subject to the mandatory cybersecurity review under the Review Measures.
However, there is no guarantee that this will continue to be the case in relation to the continued listing of our securities on a securities exchange outside of the PRC, or even if such permission is required and obtained, it will not be subsequently denied or rescinded. Any actions by the PRC government to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas (including those by issuers whose primary operations are in Hong Kong) and/or foreign investments in Hong Kong-based issuers could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or be worthless.
 
16

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Implementation of the National Security Law in Hong Kong involves uncertainty, and the policy pronouncements by the PRC government regarding business activities of U.S.-listed Chinese businesses may negatively impact our existing and future operations in Hong Kong.
On June 30, 2020, China’s top legislature unanimously passed a new National Security Law for Hong Kong. Similar to other PRC laws and regulations, the interpretation of the National Security Law involves a degree of uncertainty.
Recently, the Chinese government announced that it would step up supervision of overseas listed Chinese businesses. Under the new measures, China will enhance regulation of cross-border data flows and security, crack down on illegal activity in the securities market and punish fraudulent securities issuance, market manipulation and insider trading, China will also check sources of funding for securities investment and control leverage ratios. The CAC has also opened a cybersecurity probe into several U.S.-listed tech companies focusing on anti-monopoly, financial technology regulation and more recently, with the passage of the Data Security Law, how companies collect, store, process and transfer personal data. Currently these laws (other than the National Security Law) are expected to apply to mainland Chinese businesses, rather than businesses in Hong Kong which operate under a different set of laws from mainland China. However, there can be no assurance that the government of Hong Kong will not enact similar laws and regulations applicable to companies operating in Hong Kong.
We are a major diagnostics and genetic testing products and services provider with operations across nine locations, including the U.K., Hong Kong, India, South Africa and Southeast Asia. Although none of our business activities appears to be within the current targeted areas of concern by the PRC government, given the PRC government’s significant oversight over the conduct of business operations in mainland China and in Hong Kong, and in light of China’s recent extension of authority not only in mainland China but into Hong Kong, there are risks and uncertainties which we cannot foresee for the time being, and rules and regulations in China can change quickly with little or no advance notice. For example, the PRC government may pressure the government of Hong Kong to enact similar laws and regulations to those in mainland China, which may seek to exert control over offerings conducted overseas by Hong Kong companies.
If any or all of the foregoing were to occur, it could lead to a material adverse change in our operations and limit or hinder our ability to offer securities to overseas investors or remain listed in the U.S., which could cause the value of our shares to significantly decline or become worthless.
Our securities may be delisted or prohibited from being traded “over-the-counter” under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act. The delisting or the cessation of trading “over-the-counter” of our securities, or the threat of being delisted or prohibited, may materially and adversely affect the value and/or liquidity of your investment. Additionally, the inability of the PCAOB to conduct full inspections or investigations of our auditor deprives our investors of the benefits of such inspections or investigations.
The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, was enacted on December 18, 2020. The HFCA Act states that if the SEC determines that an issuer has filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspection by the PCAOB for three consecutive years, the SEC shall prohibit the securities of the issuer from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over the counter trading market in the United States.
Our auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included elsewhere in this prospectus, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. Since our auditor is located in Hong Kong, it is included on a list of audit firms the PCAOB determined it is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a position taken by one or more authorities in Hong Kong, and is therefore subject to the PCAOB’s determination and currently not inspected by the PCAOB.
On March 24, 2021, the SEC adopted interim final rules relating to the implementation of certain disclosure and documentation requirements of the HFCA Act. We would be required to comply with these rules if the SEC identifies it as having a “non-inspection” year under a process to be subsequently
 
17

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
established by the SEC. The SEC is assessing how to implement other requirements of the HFCA Act, including the listing and trading prohibition requirements described above.
In May 2021, the PCAOB issued a proposed rule 6100, Board Determinations Under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, for public comment. The proposed rule is related to the PCAOB’s responsibilities under the HFCA Act, which would establish a framework for the PCAOB to use when determining whether the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms located in a foreign jurisdiction because of a position taken by one or more authorities in that jurisdiction. The proposed rule was adopted by the PCAOB on September 22, 2021 and approved by the SEC on November 5, 2021. On December 2, 2021, the SEC adopted final amendments implementing the disclosure and submission requirements under the HFCA Act, pursuant to which the SEC will identify a “Commission-Identified Issuer” if an issuer has filed an annual report containing an audit report issued by a registered public accounting firm that the PCAOB has determined it is unable to inspect or investigate completely because of a position taken by an authority in the foreign jurisdiction, and will then impose a trading prohibition on an issuer after it is identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer for three consecutive years. If we are identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer and have a “non-inspection” year, there is no assurance that we will be able to take remedial measures in a timely manner. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report on its determinations that it is unable to inspect or investigate completely PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and in Hong Kong, because of positions taken by PRC authorities in such jurisdictions.
On June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, which, if passed by the U.S. House of Representatives and signed into law, would amend the HFCA Act and reduce the number of consecutive non-inspection years required for triggering the listing and trading prohibitions under the HFCA Act from three years to two years.
The SEC may propose additional rules or guidance that could impact us if our auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspection. For example, on August 6, 2020, the President’s Working Group on Financial Markets, or the PWG, issued the Report on Protecting United States Investors from Significant Risks from Chinese Companies to the then President of the United States. This report recommended that the SEC implement five recommendations to address companies from jurisdictions that do not provide the PCAOB with sufficient access to fulfil its statutory mandate. Some of the concepts of these recommendations were implemented with the enactment of the HFCA Act. However, some of the recommendations were more stringent than the HFCA Act. For example, if a company was not subject to PCAOB inspection, the report recommended that the transition period before a company would be delisted would end on January 1, 2022.
The SEC has announced that the SEC staff is preparing a consolidated proposal for the rules regarding the implementation of the HFCA Act and to address the recommendations in the PWG report. It is unclear when the SEC will complete its rulemaking and when such rules will become effective and what, if any, of the PWG recommendations will be adopted. The SEC has also announced amendments to various annual report forms to accommodate the certification and disclosure requirements of the HFCA Act. There could be additional regulatory or legislative requirements or guidance that could impact us if our auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspection. The implications of this possible regulation or guidance in addition to the requirements of the HFCA Act are uncertain, and such uncertainty could cause the market price of our securities to be materially and adversely affected.
Since the PCAOB is unable to conduct inspections or full investigations of our auditor, we could be delisted and our securities could be prohibited from being traded “over-the-counter” if we are identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer for three consecutive years. Such a delisting would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase our securities when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with a potential delisting could have a negative impact on the price of our securities. Also, such a delisting could significantly affect our ability to raise capital on acceptable terms, or at all, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and prospects.
Inspections of other audit firms that the PCAOB has conducted outside the PRC have identified deficiencies in those firms’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. If the PCAOB were unable to conduct inspections or full investigations of our auditor, we and investors in our securities would be deprived of the benefits of
 
18

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
such PCAOB inspections. In addition, the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections or full investigations of auditors would make it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our independent registered public accounting firm’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors that are subject to the PCAOB inspections, which could cause investors and potential investors to lose confidence in the audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements.
We may be affected by the currency peg system in Hong Kong and other exchange rate fluctuations.
Our functional currency is Hong Kong dollars. Since 1983, Hong Kong dollars have been pegged to the U.S. dollars at the rate of approximately HK$7.79 to US$1.00. There is no assurance that this policy will not be changed in the future. If the pegging system collapses and Hong Kong dollars suffer devaluation, the Hong Kong dollar cost of our expenditures denominated in foreign currencies may increase. This would in turn adversely affect the operations and profitability of our business.
In addition, a substantial portion of our transactions are denominated in pounds sterling, and we receive payments and incur a portion of our expenses in pounds sterling. As a result, fluctuations in exchange rates, particularly between the pound sterling on the one hand and the Hong Kong dollar on the other hand, may adversely affect our reported results of operations and cash flows. Since the Brexit, there has been a significant increase in the volatility of these exchange rates and an overall weakening of the pound sterling. Any prolonged weakening of the pound sterling against the Hong Kong dollars could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Increases in labor costs may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
The economy in Hong Kong and globally has experienced general increases in inflation and labor costs in recent years. As a result, average wages in Hong Kong and certain other regions are expected to continue to increase. In addition, we are required by Hong Kong laws and regulations to pay various statutory employee benefits, including mandatory provident fund to designated government agencies for the benefit of our employees. We expect that our labor costs, including wages and employee benefits, will continue to increase. Increasing labor costs could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Unfavorable economic and political conditions in Hong Kong and other parts of Asia could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Like many other companies that operate in Asia, our business will be materially affected by economic and political conditions in Asia, which could be negatively impacted by many factors beyond our control, such as inability to access capital markets, control of foreign exchange, changes in exchange rates, rising interest rates or inflation, slowing or negative growth rate, government involvement in allocation of resources, inability to meet financial commitments in a timely manner, terrorism, political uncertainty, epidemic or pandemic, civil unrest, fiscal or other economic policy of governments, and the timing and nature of any regulatory reform. The recent geo-political uncertainties may also give rise to uncertainties in global economic conditions and adversely affect general investor confidence. The global spread of COVID-19 in a significant number of countries around the world and the traveling restrictions due to COVID-19 have resulted in, and may intensify, global economic distress, and the extent to which it may affect our business and results of operations will depend on our future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted.
Political unrest such as protests or demonstrations could disrupt economic activities and adversely affect our business. The unrest in Hong Kong in recent years led to a decrease in inbound tourism to Hong Kong, decreased consumer spending and an overall negative impact on Hong Kong’s economy. There can be no assurance that these protests and other economic, social, or political unrest in the future will not have a material adverse effect on our financial conditions and results of operations.
 
19

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Key Risks Relating to Our Business
A significant portion of our historical revenue was, and our near-term revenue will be generated, from our COVID-19 testing services, the demand for which may be substantially reduced with the production and widely administered use of an efficacious vaccine or treatment for COVID-19, and our failure to derive significant revenue from other products and services and expand our overall customer base would harm our business and results of operation.
We generated a total revenue of approximately $65.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, the year in which its COVID-19 testing services were established, out of which $50.9 million was generated from our Diagnostics segment, which primarily comprises of COVID-19 testing services under Project Screen. We expect that revenue generated from our COVID-19 testing services will continue to account for a significant portion of our revenue in the near term. Meanwhile, we also anticipate that the demand for COVID-19 testing services may be substantially reduced with the production and widely administered use of efficacious vaccines and other therapeutic treatment for COVID-19. Therefore, our ability to execute our growth strategies and achieve and maintain profitability will depend upon not only the continued market needs of our COVID-19 testing services but also our success in deriving significant revenue from other products and services.
Although we currently have a substantial number of existing customers and new institutional customers with whom we are actively negotiating contracts for COVID-19 testing, we face intense competition from diagnostic testing companies as well as producers and developers of COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutic treatments, which could reduce the demand for COVID-19 testing. We may lose existing and future customers to competitors if those competitors produce more competitive products with higher testing accuracy or which are more affordable or easier to use, and our overall marketing opportunities may lessen if COVID-19 vaccines are widely adopted and distributed. If we are unable to launch new products successfully and expand our overall customer base, our business and results of operations will be materially and adversely affected.
The diagnostic testing market, particularly with respect to COVID-19 testing, is highly competitive, and many of our competitors are larger, better established and have greater financial and other resources.
The diagnostic testing market, particularly with respect to COVID-19 testing, is highly competitive and we face and expect ongoing substantial competition from different sources, including from diagnostic test manufacturers and producers, and development of vaccines and other therapeutic treatments, which could reduce the demand for COVID-19 testing. We believe that our ability to compete in the diagnostic testing market depends upon a variety factors such as product quality, accuracy of testing, timeliness of testing results, convenience and ease of use, underlying technology, price, customer and user experience, and certain additional factors that are beyond our control, including:

ability to develop and commercialize products and meet consumer demand;

support from evidence of clinical performance;

ability to obtain and maintain required regulatory approvals;

level of patent protection;

ability to achieve economies of scale by lowering production cost;

pricing level;

access to adequate capital; and

ability to attract and retain qualified personnel.
In terms of our diagnostic testing business, we face ongoing intense competition from different sources, including from manufacturers and producers of diagnostic tests, vaccines and therapeutic treatments. In diagnostic testing, we anticipate facing competition from companies that have or are developing molecular tests (including centralized laboratory and POC tests) as well as antigen and antibody tests to detect SARS-CoV-2. We also face competition from companies developing at-home influenza tests, like Ellume
 
20

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Limited. In addition, we face competition from companies developing a combination of COVID-19, influenza and STD tests, like Lucira Health, Inc. We face potential competition from many sources, including academic institutions, public and private research institutions and governmental agencies. Competitors with diagnostic tests include private and public companies, such as Cue Health Inc., LumiraDx Limited, BGI Group, KingMed Diagnostics (Hong Kong) Limited, Sonic Healthcare Limited, Myraid Genetics, Inc. and Invitae Corporation. Many of our current and potential competitors are significantly larger, and have substantially greater financial, scientific, manufacturing and other resources, which may allow these competitors to respond more quickly to emerging technologies, obtain regulatory approvals for their products faster, and develop and commercialize competitive products with greater functionality or at lower cost than us, resulting in these competitors establishing a stronger market position than we are able to. If we are unable to compete effectively, our commercial opportunity may be lost or significantly reduced and we may fail to meet our strategic objectives, and our business, financial condition and operating results could be harmed.
In addition to competition from diagnostic testing companies, there are companies developing vaccines and therapeutic treatments for COVID-19 and other infectious diseases, which could reduce the demand for diagnostic testing. As of September 25, 2021, 7 COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for use by WHO. As a result, our COVID-19 testing market opportunities may lessen or disappear in the long run if existing or future vaccines are widely distributed and become widely used.
The consumer genetic testing market is highly competitive, and many of our competitors are more established and have stronger marketing capabilities and greater financial resources, which presents a continuous threat to the success of our consumer genetic testing business.
In addition to diagnostic testing, we also operate a consumer genetic testing business primarily through our CircleDNA product line. Consumer genetic testing is a rapidly growing market and, the number of companies with products and technologies similar to CircleDNA continues to increase.
We anticipate facing competition. Our ability to compete depends upon a number of factors both within and beyond our control, including the following:

quality and reliability of its solutions;

accessibility of results;

turnaround time of testing results;

price;

convenience and ease of use;

selling and marketing efforts;

additional value-added services and health informatics tools;

customer service and support efforts;

adaptability to evolving regulatory landscape;

the ability to execute strategies to protect data privacy and build customer trust; and

our brand recognition relative to our competitors.
We also face competition from other companies attempting to enter the genetic testing market and capitalize on similar opportunities. Many of our current and potential competitors have longer operating histories, larger customer bases, greater brand recognition and market penetration, substantially greater financial, technological, marketing and other resources than we do. These factors may allow them to be able to respond more quickly to changes in customer requirements and emerging technologies, devote greater resources to the research, development, marketing and sales of their products, and adopt more aggressive pricing policies than we do. As a result, our competitors may develop products or services that are similar to or that achieve greater market acceptance than our offerings, and we may not be able to compete effectively against these organizations.
 
21

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
If we fail to compete successfully against our current and future competitors, we may be unable to increase sales revenue and market share, improve our results of operations, or achieve profitability.
Our near-term success is highly dependent on the successful launch of Circle HealthPod and the continued commercialization of our COVID-19 testing services in our target geographies. If our existing or new products are unable to attain market acceptance or be successfully commercialized in all or any of these jurisdictions, our business and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
Our near-term success is dependent on the successful launch of Circle HealthPod, which is a rapid detection health monitoring system that was officially launched in Hong Kong on November 18, 2021. Circle HealthPod offers individuals a lab-quality molecular testing solution for COVID-19 rapid testing for professional use and home use, and is expected to continue to penetrate jurisdictions other than Hong Kong. While Circle HealthPod is currently used only for COVID-19 testing, we plan to enhance it to cover a range of tests traditionally conducted in clinical laboratories such as tests for influenza and certain STDs. The commercial success of Circle HealthPod and the continued success of our COVID-19 testing services in our other target geographies will depend on many factors, some of which are outside of our control, including the following:

the timely receipt of regulatory approvals and marketing authorizations from the regulatory authorities in jurisdictions to which we plan to expand our business operations including Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, the United States, India and South Africa, among others;

the ability to successfully expand the testing capability of Circle HealthPod to detect other infectious diseases and accommodate additional assays in the current system;

the ability to continue to scale up our manufacturing and commercial capabilities and improve Circle Healthpod while maintaining similar manufacturing cost and quality so that we can manufacture our testing products in sufficient capacity to meet customer requirements on quality and performance and market demand;

the ability of our COVID-19 testing services to accurately detect different strains of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, created by genetic mutation or otherwise, such as the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern known as the Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta variants or other new variants that have emerged or may emerge around the world;

acceptance by healthcare systems and providers, governments and regulatory authorities, key opinion leaders, consumers and the overall medical community of the convenience, accuracy, sufficiency and other benefits offered by our COVID-19 testing products;

perceptions by the public and members of the medical community as to the perceived advantages, relative cost, relative convenience and relative accuracy of our COVID-19 test kit compared to those of our competitors;

the effectiveness of our marketing and sales efforts, including our ability to have a sufficient number of talented sales representatives to sell our testing services;

the length of the COVID-19 pandemic and the extent to which widespread vaccinations in Hong Kong, the U.K. and elsewhere reduces demand for COVID-19 testing; and

our ability to achieve and maintain compliance with all regulatory requirements applicable to our products in various jurisdictions, including manufacture, labeling, advertising, promotion and post-market surveillance requirements.
Although we have already received regulatory approval to sell COVID-19 test kits in the U.K. and the European Union, and are not required to obtain regulatory approval in Hong Kong, our test kits may not receive regulatory approvals or market authorizations due to the complexity of domestic regulatory regimes in other jurisdictions we plan to expand to, or even if we do receive the regulatory approvals, our test kit may not receive broad market acceptance among customers, physicians, users and others in the medical community. We officially launched Circle HealthPod in Hong Kong on November 18, 2021. We have commenced a clinical validation and completed a usability study with UserWise Inc., a U.S. based consulting
 
22

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
firm focused on U.S. FDA compliance, regulatory approval and usability engineering services for medical products, in preparation for obtaining Emergency Use Authorization (“EUA”) from U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) to certify Circle HealthPod for home use and professional use. We are also preparing to apply for European Union notified body assessment as required by European Union Directive 98/79/EC (“EU IVDD”) to certify Circle HealthPod for home use. There is no guarantee that we will receive approvals and marketing authorizations from the regulatory authorities in our target geographies in time or at all.
If our COVID-19 testing services and Circle HealthPod are not successfully commercialized as expected, We may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to become profitable, and failure to gain broad market acceptance could also have a material adverse effect on the broader commercial success of our future testing products, and on our business, operations results and financial condition.
In addition, the COVID-19 diagnostic testing market is characterized by rapid technological developments, and even if we were to gain widespread market acceptance temporarily, our COVID-19 testing services may be rendered uncompetitive or obsolete if we are unable to match any new technological advances in this market. Further, market adoption of our COVID-19 testing services and Circle HealthPod may also be materially affected by the availability and efficaciousness of vaccines or the emergence of other therapeutic treatments for COVID-19. If we are unable to match technological improvements in competitive products or effectively respond to the needs of our customers and users, the demand for our COVID-19 testing services and Circle HealthPod could be reduced and our revenue could be adversely affected.
We rely substantially on third-party contract manufacturers for the manufacturing, quality-testing, assembly and shipping of our COVID-19 test kit, Circle HealthPod and other products. Any termination of significant rights under the existing arrangements would disrupt our ability to sell and distribute our COVID-19 test kit, Circle HealthPod and other products until and unless we find new contract manufacturers, which would materially and adversely affect our business.
We do not have in-house manufacturing capabilities and do not plan to develop such capacity in the foreseeable future. We rely substantially, and intend to continue to rely substantially on third-party contract manufacturers for the manufacturing, quality-testing, assembly and shipping of all of our existing products including Circle HealthPod.
Any variation or termination of or loss of rights under the existing manufacturing arrangements may require changes to our manufacturing plans and would harm our ability to commercialize, sell and distribute our COVID-19 test kit and Circle HealthPod, which in turn would have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and prospects. If we were to lose our rights under the existing arrangements, it would be difficult for us to find an alternative manufacturer, which could cause significant delays for us to bring our products to market.
We have also granted an exclusive license to a third-party contract manufacturer to use our intellectual property to manufacture and deliver the COVID-19 test kits to us, pursuant to a license agreement. We therefore must rely on such manufacturing agreement for COVID-19 test kits manufactured in mainland China and cannot, by ourselves or through a different third party, use the exclusively licensed intellectual property to develop, make, use, import, export and market the technology for such test kits in mainland China in the event such third-party contract manufacturer is unable to provide us with sufficient supply.
We need to substantially increase the production capacity of our COVID-19 test kits and Circle HealthPod in order to achieve our near-term and long-term business development goals. If the third-party manufacturers we partner with are unable to increase and achieve the required or target production capacities, we would be unable to fulfill our actual or anticipated customer demand which would negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our inability to meet the manufacturing and production requirements could cause us to lose our existing customers or fail to attract new customers which would also negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have a number of pipeline products that are currently in the R&D phase, including Circle Medical, Circle SnapShot, future assays of Circle HealthPod, Circle One and F1x and Fem, and may not be successful in our efforts to develop any of these or other products into marketable products. Any failure to develop these or other products or any delay in the development could adversely affect our business and future prospects.
We have a number of pipeline products that are currently in the R&D stage, including Circle Medical and Circle SnapShot, which are advancement of existing diagnostic testing products, and Circle One, F1x and Fem, which are personalized care, hair and sexual health products.
 
23

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
For certain of our pipeline products, before obtaining approvals from regulatory authorities for the marketing and sales of these pipeline products in certain jurisdictions, we must complete certain registration processes with the local regulatory authorities. For example, with respect to In Vitro Diagnostic (“IVD”) testing devices, in the U.K. and the European Union, IVD devices are regulated by EU IVDD, and must comply with the essential safety, health, design and manufacturing requirements under EU IVDD. Beginning in January 1, 2021, IVD device manufacturers can also place a device by registering with the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (“MHRA”). Under the MHRA requirements, IVD devices must meet essential requirements including demonstrating safety and efficacy of the device and be registered with the MHRA.
We officially launched Circle HealthPod in Hong Kong on November 18, 2021. We have commenced a clinical validation and completed a usability study with UserWise Inc., a U.S. based consulting firm focused on U.S. FDA compliance, regulatory approval and usability engineering services for medical products, in preparation for obtaining EUA from U.S. FDA to certify Circle HealthPod for home use and professional use. We are also preparing to apply for European Union notified body assessment as required by EU IVDD to certify Circle HealthPod for home use. We are required to carry out clinical trials and human-factor usability studies in the U.S., the U.K. and Hong Kong to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the product to support the EUA submission. We cannot be certain that any clinical trials will be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all, or that any of our products will be successful in clinical trials or receive regulatory approvals.
Our failure to successfully complete the registration process or clinical studies could result in additional costs to us, delay the commercialization of our pipeline products and negatively impact our ability to generate revenue. If we do not receive regulatory approvals for our pipeline products, or otherwise fail to develop these products or there is any delay in the development, our business prospects will be materially and adversely affected.
In addition, even if we successfully develop and obtain regulatory approval for our pipeline products, our future success is dependent on our ability to then successfully commercialize new products. There is no assurance that we will be able to obtain adequate manufacturing supply, build a commercial organization, and commence marketing efforts before we generate any significant revenue from the sales of new commercial products, if ever.
Clinical trials, and verification and validation studies necessary to support a future product submission with regulatory authorities will be expensive and may require the enrollment of large numbers of subjects or the availability of a large number of test samples, and suitable subjects or samples may be difficult to identify and recruit or obtain. Delays or failures in our clinical trials will prevent us from commercializing any modified or new products and will adversely affect our business, operating results and prospects.
We have commenced a clinical validation and completed a usability study with UserWise Inc., a U.S. based consulting firm focused on U.S. FDA compliance, regulatory approval and usability engineering services for medical products, in preparation for obtaining EUA from U.S. FDA to certify Circle HealthPod for home use and professional use. We are also preparing to apply for European Union notified body assessment as required by EU IVDD to certify Circle HealthPod for home use. There is no guarantee that we will receive any such regulatory approvals. We are required to conduct clinical trials and usability test to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the product. Initiating and completing clinical trials necessary to support the regulatory application will be time-consuming and expensive and the outcome is uncertain. Moreover, the results of early clinical trials are not necessarily predictive of future results, and any products we advance into clinical trials and verification and validation studies may not have favorable results in subsequent clinical trials or studies. In addition, we are also in the process of conducting clinical studies necessary to support the commercialization of ColoClear, a pipeline product for early colorectal cancer screening, in several jurisdictions other than Hong Kong.
Conducting successful clinical trials and/or studies will require the enrollment of large numbers of subjects, the success of which depends on many factors, including the nature of the trial protocol, the indication of the underlying test kit/testing device, the risks associated with the trial, the availability of appropriate clinical trial investigators and support staff, and the ability of subjects to comply with the eligibility and other enrollment criteria of the trial. Conducting successful verification and validation studies
 
24

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
will require identification and access to a substantial number of suitable samples, as well as successful data entry, analysis, review and verification, all of which are critical to securing the success of the study session. Delay in any step of the study sessions would significantly prolong the process of collecting, logging and verifying data.
Our clinical trials may also be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, potential subjects in our clinical trials may choose not to participate in clinical trials as a precaution against contracting COVID-19. Some subjects may not be able or willing to comply with clinical trial protocols if quarantines impede subject movement or interrupt healthcare services. Delays in subject enrollment or failure of subjects to continue to participate in a clinical trial may cause an increase in costs and delays in the approval and attempted commercialization of our products.
If the third parties engaged by us to conduct clinical trials fail to render their services as contractually required or expected, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize its products.
We do not have the ability to independently conduct clinical trials that are required to obtain regulatory approvals for our certain products, and we must rely on third parties, such as contract research organizations, medical institutions, clinical investigators and contract laboratories, to conduct such trials. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or regulatory obligations or meet expected deadlines, if these third parties need to be replaced for any reason, or if the quality or accuracy of the data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our clinical protocols or regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed, suspended or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for, or successfully commercialize, our products on a timely basis, if at all, and our business, operating results and prospects may be adversely affected. Furthermore, our third-party clinical trial investigators may be delayed in conducting our clinical trials for reasons outside of our control.
If we are not successful in leveraging our platform and technology to discover, develop and commercialize additional products, our ability to expand our business and achieve our strategic objectives would be impaired.
We believe that our platform and technology are empowered to launch different products to be used in various settings and to target other infectious diseases in addition to COVID-19. Therefore, one of our key growth strategies is to capitalize on the flexibility of our platform and technology and develop other products. We are actively engaging in research and development with Oxford to expand the testing capability of Circle HealthPod to cover a range of tests traditionally conducted in clinical laboratories such as tests for influenza and certain STDs, and also plan to conduct additional research and development activities to further explore the potential of its use in detecting more diseases. We may not be successful in developing these additional assays in a timely manner or at all.
Developing new testing products requires substantial technical, financial and human resources, whether or not any testing products are ultimately developed or commercialized, which may divert management’s attention away from our current businesses. We may pursue what we believe to be a promising opportunity to leverage our platform only to discover that certain of our resource allocation decisions were incorrect or insufficient, or that certain testing products or our platform in general has risks that were previously unknown or underappreciated. In the event material decisions with respect to our strategy turn out to be incorrect or sub-optimal, we may experience a material adverse impact on our business and ability to fund our operations and capitalize on what we believe to be potential. The success of developing any new products will depend on several factors, some of which are outside of our control, including our ability to:

properly identify and anticipate physician and patient needs;

assemble sufficient resources to discover additional testing products;

develop and introduce new products or enhancements in a timely manner;

demonstrate, if required by regulatory authorities, the accuracy and usability of new testing products and enhancements with data from clinical trials;

obtain the necessary regulatory clearances or approvals for expanded indications, new testing products or enhancements;
 
25

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

be fully compliant with regulations on marketing of new devices or modified products;

produce new testing products in a cost-effective manner; and

provide adequate training to potential users of our new testing products that contain enhanced features.
If we fail to develop or improve our products and services for additional applications or features, we may not be able to compete effectively with the research and development programs of our competitors, and such failure to develop or inability to compete could harm our business.
If our products and services do not deliver reliable results as expected, our reputation, business and operating results will be adversely affected.
The success of our products and services depends on the market’s confidence that we can provide reliable test kits that enable high-quality diagnostic testing with high accuracy, sensitivity and specificity and with short turnaround times. There is no guarantee that the accuracy and reproducibility we have demonstrated to date will continue as our product deliveries increase and our product portfolio expands.
Our products and services use a number of complex and sophisticated biochemical and bioinformatics processes, many of which are highly sensitive to external factors, including human error. An operational, technological, user or other failure in one of these complex processes or fluctuations in external variables may result in sensitivity or specificity rates that are lower than we anticipate or result in longer than expected turnaround times.
As a result, the test performance and commercial attractiveness of our products may be adversely affected, and our reputation may be harmed. If our products do not perform, or are perceived to not have performed, as expected or favorably in comparison to competitive products, our operating results, reputation, and business will suffer, and we may also be subject to legal claims arising from product limitations, errors, or inaccuracies.
Furthermore, there is no guarantee that customers will always use these products properly in the manner in which they are intended. Any intentional or unintentional misuse of these products by customers could lead to substantial civil and criminal monetary and non-monetary penalties, and could result in significant legal and investigatory fees.
Other Risks Relating to Our Business
We have incurred net losses since our inception, and we anticipate that we will continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future, which could harm our future business prospects.
We have incurred substantial losses since our inception. For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, our net losses were $174.0 million and $2.0 million, respectively. We have financed our operations principally from the issuances of preferred shares and convertible securities to third-party investors, and have received over $81 million in funding to date. We may continue to incur losses both in the near term and longer term as we continue to devote a significant portion of our resources to scale up our business and operations, including continuing to build out our corporate infrastructure, increasing our manufacturing capabilities, engaging in continued research and development of key testing technologies as we work to expand our portfolio of available test services, and other related business activities, and as we incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company.
We only started to realize revenue for our Diagnostics segment from our COVID-19 testing services since April 2020. Since then, we have incurred significant expenses in connection with scaling up our operations, including costs associated with scaling up operations, sales and marketing expenses, and costs associated with the hiring of new employees, the continued growth of our business and development of our corporate infrastructure. While our revenue has increased over time, given the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with our research, development, manufacturing and commercialization efforts, we expect to continue to incur significant losses as we develop and invest in our business, and we are unable to predict when we will become profitable on a sustained basis or at all. our ability to achieve or sustain
 
26

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
profitability is based on numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including, among other factors, market acceptance of our products, the length of the COVID-19 pandemic, the vaccination effectiveness and vaccination rates, future product development, our market penetration and margins and our ability to commercialize the pipeline products. Losses have historically had an adverse effect on our working capital, total assets and shareholders’ equity, and expected future losses may continue to have an adverse effect on our working capital, shareholders’ equity, and the price of the Class A Ordinary Shares. Our failure to achieve and sustain profitability in the future would negatively affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, and could cause the market price of the Class A Ordinary Shares to decline.
We are in early-stage and have a limited operating history, and our near-term business strategy and in-house R&D efforts are centered around new and rapidly developing markets including point-of-care testing (POCT) for infectious diseases diagnosis, which may make us difficult to evaluate our current business and predict our future performance.
We began operations in 2014 and commercially launched our first consumer genetic testing kits under CircleDNA in July 2019 and our COVID-19 testing services under Project Screen in April 2020, respectively. Accordingly, we are in relatively early stage with a limited operating history upon which you can evaluate our business and prospects. our limited operating history may make us difficult to evaluate our current business and predict our future performance, prospects or viability. Any assessment of our prospects is subject to significant uncertainty and must be considered in light of the risks and difficulties frequently encountered by companies in their early stage of development, particularly those in new and rapidly evolving markets like us. These risks include, among others, an evolving and unpredictable business model and the management of growth. To address these risks, we must, among other things:

increase our customer base;

continue to implement and successfully execute our business and marketing strategy;

identify, acquire and successfully integrate assets or technologies in areas that are complementary to our business strategy;

successfully enter into other strategic collaborations or relationships;

obtain access to capital on acceptable terms and effectively utilize that capital;

identify, attract, hire, retain, motivate and successfully integrate additional employees;

continue to expand, automate and upgrade our laboratory, technology and data systems;

provide rapid test turnaround times with accurate and clear results at low prices;

provide superior customer service; and

respond to competitive developments.
If we are unable to address these risks successfully, our revenue, results of operations and business could be materially and adversely affected.
In addition, our focus on new and rapidly developing markets could also make us difficult to achieve our strategic goals and could harm our future business prospects. In the near-term, we plan to continue to leverage our experience in COVID-19 diagnostic testing and expand our success in the broader market of POCT for other infectious diseases. We have encountered, and will continue to encounter, risks and difficulties frequently experienced in rapidly evolving industries, some of which are outside of our control, including those related to:

our ability to compete with companies that are currently in, or may in the future enter, the consumer-use POCT market for infectious diseases, including companies with greater financial, technical and other resources than us;

our ability to continuously invest in R&D and innovation to ensure utilization of the advanced technologies to enhance the sensitivity and accuracy of the tests;
 
27

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

our ability to scale manufacturing to quantities sufficient to meet consumer demand in a timely manner;

our ability to control costs, particularly manufacturing expenses;

our ability to achieve or maintain a retail price satisfactory to consumers;

unanticipated delays in test kit development or test kit launches;

positive or negative media coverage of our products or competing products; and

general economic and political conditions.
Our future success is substantially dependent on the manner in which the market for infectious disease testing develops and grows. If the market develops in a manner that does not facilitate demand for POCT products for infectious diseases, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be adversely affected.
We have a limited history introducing new products and services to our customers. The future prospects of our business may be harmed if our efforts to attract new customers and engage existing customers by introducing new products, including Circle HealthPod, are unsuccessful.
Our success depends on our ability to continuously attract new customers and engage existing customers. If we are unable to introduce new and enhanced products and services, or if we introduce new products or services that are not favorably received by the market, we may not be able to attract or retain customers.
Our marketing efforts currently include various initiatives and consist primarily of digital marketing on a variety of social media channels, such as YouTube, Instagram, LinkedIn, Facebook, search engine optimization on websites, such as Google and Facebook Ads, various branding strategies, and email. During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 and the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, we spent $21.9 million and $6.5 million on sales and distribution, representing 8% and 10% of our revenue, respectively. We anticipate that sales and distribution expenses will continue to represent a significant percentage of our overall operating costs for the foreseeable future.
We have historically acquired a significant number of customers through digital advertising on platforms and websites owned by Google and Facebook, which may terminate their agreements with us at any time. Our investments in sales and marketing may not effectively reach potential customers and potential customers may decide not to buy our products or services, any of which could adversely affect our financial results.
On November 18, 2021, we officially launched our latest product, Circle HealthPod, which is a rapid detection health monitoring system that offers lab-quality COVID-19 testing solutions for professional use and home use initially in Hong Kong. The commercial success of Circle HealthPod depends on a variety of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including:

our ability to obtain regulatory approvals including from U.S. FDA and MHRA;

our ability to accurately detect different SARS-CoV-2 variants; and

our ability to successfully develop a range of tests traditionally conducted in clinical laboratories such as tests for influenza and certain STDs.
If we are unable to attract new customers or engage existing customers either by introducing new products and services or through marketing efforts, our revenue and operating results may grow slower than expected or decline.
We may not be able to achieve or maintain satisfactory pricing and margins, and our pricing strategies may not meet customers’ price expectations, which could adversely affect our revenues and results of operations.
Our pricing strategies have had, and may continue to have, a significant impact on our revenue. Manufacturers of diagnostic tests have a history of price competition, and we may not be able to achieve or maintain satisfactory prices for our testing services. The pricing of our testing services could be impacted
 
28

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
by several factors, including pressure to improve margins as a result of competitive or customer pricing pressure. If we are forced to lower the price of our testing services, our gross margins will decrease, which could harm our ability to invest in and grow our business, and could harm our financial condition and results of operations and our future prospects.
We offer or may in the future offer discounted prices as a means of attracting customers. Such offers and discounts, however, may reduce our revenue and margins. In addition, our competitors’ pricing and marketing strategies are beyond our control and can significantly affect the results of our pricing strategies. If our pricing strategies fail to meet our customers’ price expectations or fail to result in derived margins, or if we are unable to compete effectively with our competitors if they engage in aggressive pricing strategies or other competitive activities, our business could be adversely affected.
We have increased, and expect to further expand, the size of our organization, and we may experience difficulties in managing our growth. If we are unable to manage the anticipated growth of our business, our future revenue and operating results may be harmed.
We have experienced growth in our business operations and corporate infrastructure since our inception and anticipate further significant growth. From our inception through the date of this prospectus, the number of our employees increased from 11 to over 800. As we transition into operating as a public company, such future growth could strain our organizational, administrative and operational infrastructure, including laboratory operations, quality control, operational performance, finance, customer service, marketing sales, and management. We may need to increase our headcount and to hire, train and manage additional specialized personnel to facilitate our growth, including qualified scientists, laboratory personnel, customer service specialists, and sales and marketing force, and we may have difficulties locating, recruiting, training and retaining such specialized personnel. Rapid expansion in personnel could mean that less experienced people develop, market and sell our products, which could result in inefficiencies, reduced quality, unanticipated costs and disruptions to our operations. If we are unsuccessful in hiring, training, managing and integrating the new employees and they perform poorly as a result, our business may be harmed. In addition, we may not be able to maintain our expected turnaround times for our testing services or otherwise satisfy customer demands as we grow, and future business growth could also make it difficult for us to maintain our corporate culture.
Our ability to manage our growth effectively will require continued improvement of our operational, financial and management controls, as well as our reporting systems and procedures. Any failure of our controls or interruption of our general process management could have a negative impact on our business and financial operations.
In addition, our suppliers and contract manufacturers may not be able to allocate sufficient capacity in order to meet our requirements, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Given our very short history of operating a business at commercial scale and our very recent rapid growth, we cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully manage the expansion of our operations or recruit and train additional qualified personnel in an effective manner. If we are unable to manage our growth effectively, it may be difficult for us to execute our business strategy and our business and operations could be adversely affected.
The initial use of our test kits requires users to follow instructions, and not adhering to instructions may lead to false results and inaccurate outcomes, which could harm the user experience and customer perception of our products.
The successful use of our testing products depends on each user following the instructions provided. Any user, whether it be a healthcare provider or customer at home, could experience difficulty performing a test using our test kit if he or she fails to follow the instructions or otherwise misuses the test, which may lead to false results and inaccurate outcomes. If a user utilizes our products incorrectly, or without adhering to our instructions, his or her test result outcomes may not be consistent with the outcomes achieved in our clinical trials or validation studies. For example, not ensuring a clean environment for use or not washing hands or wearing gloves may cause contamination of samples and result in false or inaccurate test results.
 
29

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
In addition, not following instructions to carry out the swab tests properly may cause failure to collect sufficient samples to provide accurate test results. These incidents could harm our ability to achieve the broad degree of adoption necessary for commercial success or cause negative publicity and word-of-mouth as a result of our tests not meeting user expectations and accordingly, our operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected, which may delay, prevent or limit our ability to generate revenue and continue our business.
Some of our marketing initiatives, including celebrity and key opinion leader endorsement and use of social media, may adversely affect our reputation.
We partner with celebrity brand ambassadors and key opinion leaders and launch various marketing campaigns on social media as part of our marketing initiatives. For example, we have engaged Donnie Yen, a renowned Asian actor and filmmaker, in promoting Circle HealthPod as our brand ambassador. Our CircleDNA product also has more than 12,000 related tags on Instagram generated by users.
While celebrity endorsement helps strengthen our brand influence and promote our products, any negative publicity related to any of these celebrities, the occurrence of which is beyond our control, may adversely impact our reputation and brand image and consequently our ability to attract new customers and retain existing customers.
In addition, customers may provide feedback and public commentary about our products and other aspects of our business online through social media platforms, including Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube, and any negative information concerning us, whether accurate or not, may be posted on social media platforms at any time and may have a disproportionately adverse impact on our brand, reputation, or business. The harm may be immediate without affording us an opportunity for redress or correction and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects.
We rely substantially on our research collaboration with Oxford for development and commercialization of its POCT infectious disease testing products. If Oxford is unable to achieve projected development milestones or produce any meaningful research results, or experiences delays in doing so, we may not be able to capitalize on our investment in the collaboration projects and our business and reputation may be adversely affected.
We are substantially dependent on our research collaboration with Oxford for the development of the advanced nucleic acid amplification test, or NAAT, for versatile IVD applications and on our research collaboration with Oxford University (Suzhou) Science & Technology Co., Ltd. (“Oxford Suzhou”) for development and commercialization of Circle HealthPod. If we, Oxford, Oxford Suzhou or any future collaborators are unable to successfully complete research projects, generate scientific discoveries, complete clinical development, obtain regulatory approval for, or commercialize any products, or experience delays in doing so, our business may be materially harmed. If these or future collaborations are not successful, we may not be able to capitalize on our investment.
In February 2021, we entered into a research collaboration agreement with Oxford through Prenetics HK, our wholly owned subsidiary, to sponsor a research project relating to scaling out the advanced NAAT flexible platform for versatile IVD applications (the “Oxford Agreement”). Under the Oxford Agreement, Oxford is commissioned by us to utilize the advanced nucleic acid amplification test to develop COVID-19 assays with improved sensitivity and shorter test results turnaround time and other infectious diseases and certain STD assay. Under the Oxford Agreement, all intellectual property that is identified or first reduced to practice or writing or developed in the course of the project will be owned by Oxford, although we have an exclusive option to negotiate a license to commercially exploit such intellectual property and enter into a license agreement under mutually agreed term. We also have a right of first refusal for a certain period to match or provide a better offer to Oxford if Oxford receives an offer from a third party to commercially exploit such intellectual property. We may not have the financial resources sufficient to exercise the right of first refusal.
While the Oxford Agreement may not be terminated for convenience, Oxford has the ability to terminate the Oxford Agreement if certain conditions are met, including, among others, if we fail to make a payment when due under the Oxford Agreement or fail to remedy a breach. If Oxford were to terminate the Oxford Agreement, reduce its funding or opt out of any drugs thereunder, or shift its research and development
 
30

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
focus so as to deemphasize any programs under the Oxford Agreement, our revenues, operating results and our ability to fund and advance drug programs and conduct our business would be adversely affected. We cannot provide any assurance with respect to the success of any research, development or commercialization efforts pursuant to the Oxford Agreement.
In February 2021, we entered into a research collaboration agreement through Prenetics HK with Oxford Suzhou, the operating body and public facing entity of Oxford Suzhou Centre for Advanced Research (“OSCAR”), to collaborate on a research project focused on the development of Circle HealthPod targeting retail customers and clinicians (the “OSCAR Agreement”). Under the OSCAR Agreement, any information, data, techniques, know-how, results, inventions, discoveries, software and materials identified or first reduced to practice or writing developed in the course of the project will be owned by the party that creates or generates such research result. If any of the foregoing is created or generated by us and Oxford Suzhou jointly and it is impossible to distinguish each party’s intellectual contribution to the creation of intellectual property rights in that research result, the intellectual property right will be co-owned by us and Oxford Suzhou. Co-owned intellectual property rights will limit our ability to use and exploit such intellectual property, and Oxford Suzhou, as the other co-owner, may license its rights to other third parties, including our competitors, who could market competing products of us. In addition, we may need the cooperation of the joint owner in order to enforce such intellectual property rights against third parties, and such cooperation may not be provided. While the OSCAR Agreement may not be terminated for convenience, Oxford Suzhou has the ability to terminate the OSCAR Agreement if certain conditions are met, including, among others, if we fail to make a payment when due under the Oxford Agreement or fail to remedy a breach. If Oxford Suzhou were to terminate the OSCAR Agreement, reduce its funding or opt out of any collaboration thereunder, or shift its research and development focus so as to deemphasize any programs under the OSCAR Agreement, our revenues, operating results and our ability to fund and advance our research projects would be adversely affected. We cannot provide any assurance with respect to the success of any research, development or commercialization efforts pursuant to the OSCAR Agreement.
Our current collaboration poses, and potential additional collaborations could pose, the following risks to us:

collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to these collaborations;

collaborators may not perform their obligations as expected;

collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with those of us;

collaborators may fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements regarding the development of a medical product;

collaborators may infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties, which may expose us to litigation and potential liability;

disputes may arise between a collaborator and us that cause delay or termination of the research, development or commercialization of the product, or that result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management attention and resources; and

collaborations may be terminated by the collaborator, and, if terminated, we may find it difficult for us to find alternate collaborators and enter into collaboration agreements on acceptable terms, if at all, suffer reputational harm and be required to raise additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the particular product.
Any of the foregoing risks, if materialized, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on a limited number of suppliers for Circle HealthPod components, COVID-19 test kit materials and laboratory testing services for COVID-19 test kit and CircleDNA, and may not be able to find replacements or immediately transition to alternative suppliers, which could adversely affect our ability to meet customer demand.
We rely on a limited number of suppliers for Circle HealthPod components, test kit materials, genome sequencing service and RT-PCR testing service. We do not have long-term agreements with most of our
 
31

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
suppliers, and our suppliers could cease supplying these materials and services at any time, or fail to provide us with sufficient quantities of materials or materials that meet our specifications or services that are satisfactory to us. Obtaining substitute components could be difficult, time-consuming and costly and it could require us to redesign or revalidate our test kit. Our laboratory operations could be interrupted if we encounter delays or difficulties in securing these reagents, sequencers or other equipment or materials, and if we cannot timely obtain an acceptable substitute. Such interruption could significantly affect our ability to conduct our tests and could adversely affect our ability to meet customer demand.
Although we maintain relationships with suppliers with the objective of ensuring that we have adequate supply for the delivery of our services, increases in demand for our services can result in supply shortages and higher costs. Our suppliers may not be able to meet our delivery schedules or performance and quality specifications, and we may not be able to purchase such items at a competitive cost. Further, we may experience shortages in certain items as a result of limited availability, increased demand, COVID-19 pandemic or other outbreaks of contagious diseases, weather conditions and natural disasters, as well as other factors outside of our control. In addition, our freight costs may increase due to factors such as limited carrier availability, increased fuel costs, increased compliance costs associated with new or changing government regulations, pandemics (including the COVID-19 pandemic) or other outbreaks of contagious diseases and inflation. Furthermore, the prices charged for our products may not reflect changes in our packaging material, freight, tariff and energy costs at the time they occur, or at all. Any of the foregoing risks, if they occur, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes our future operating results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations.
Our quarterly and annual operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes it difficult for us to predict our future operating results. These fluctuations may occur due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including, but not limited to:

the level of demand for any approved testing product, which may fluctuate significantly with prevalence or perceived prevalence of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases and availability of vaccines or other therapeutic treatments, which may reduce the demand of our testing products;

the timing and cost of, and level of investment in, research, development, manufacturing, regulatory approval and commercialization activities relating to our testing products, which

may change from time to time;

sales and marketing efforts and expenses;

the rate at which we grow our sales force and the speed at which newly hired salespeople become effective;

changes in the productivity of our sales force;

positive or negative coverage in the media or clinical publications of our testing products or competitive products;

the cost of manufacturing our testing products, which may vary depending on the quantity of production and the terms of our arrangements with our suppliers;

our introduction of new or enhanced products or technologies or others in the diagnostic and genetic testing industry;

pricing pressures;

expenditures that we may incur to acquire, develop or commercialize testing products for additional indications, if any;

the degree of competition in our industry and any change in the competitive landscape of our industry;

changes in governmental regulations or in the status of our regulatory approvals or requirements;
 
32

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

future accounting pronouncements or changes in our accounting policies; and

general market conditions and other factors, including factors unrelated to our operating performance or the operating performance of our competitors.
The cumulative effects of factors discussed above and other factors could result in large fluctuations and unpredictability in our quarterly and annual operating results. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. Investors should not rely on our past results as an indication of our future performance. This variability and unpredictability could also result in our failure to meet the expectations of industry or financial analysts or investors for any period, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects, and the market price of the Class A Ordinary Shares and the Warrants.
Our business significantly depends upon the strength of our brands, including Prenetics, CircleDNA and Circle HealthPod, and any harm to our brands or reputation may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We believe that the brand identity that we have developed has significantly contributed to the success of our business. It is critical that we continue to maintain and enhance the recognition and reputation of our brands. Many factors, some of which are beyond our control, are important to maintaining and enhancing our brands and if not properly managed, may cause material harm to our brands. These factors include our ability to:

provide effective, accurate and user-friendly testing services to customers;

maintain the efficiency, reliability and quality of the testing services we provide to our consumers;

maintain or improve consumer satisfaction with our after-sale services;

increase brand awareness through marketing and brand promotion activities; and

preserve our reputation and goodwill in the event of any negative publicity on our services, product quality, price, data privacy and security, our industry and other players within the industry or other issues affecting us or our peers.
If our devices are perceived by the public to be of poor quality or if our test kits are perceived to provide inaccurate results or significantly delayed responses, such perception, even if factually incorrect or based on isolated incidents, could damage our reputation, diminish the value of our brand, undermine the trust and credibility we have established and have a negative impact on our ability to attract new clients and customers or retain our current clients and customers. If we fail to promote and maintain our brands including “Prenetics,” “CircleDNA,” or “Circle HealthPod,” or if we incur excessive expenses in this effort, our business, operating results and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected. We anticipate that, as the market becomes increasingly competitive, maintaining and enhancing our brands may become increasingly difficult and expensive.
If we cannot provide quality technical and customer and user support, we could lose customers, and our business and prospects may be adversely affected.
The provision of our testing services to our customers requires ongoing customer and user support and therefore recruitment, training and retention of technical, customer and user support teams. Hiring technical and customer and user support personnel is very competitive in the industry due to the limited number of people available with the necessary scientific and technical backgrounds and ability to understand our platform at a technical level. Furthermore, Circle HealthPod is a hardware device with complex and advanced technology and we have no experience or minimal experience providing technical and user support and maintenance service to a large customer base that are using our hardware product. To effectively support potential new customers and ultimately users, we will need to substantially develop a technical and customer and user support staff. If we are unable to attract, train or retain the number of qualified technical and customer and user support personnel sufficient to meet our business needs, our business and prospects will suffer.
 
33

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
If we are unable to successfully expand our sales and marketing infrastructure to match our growth, our business may be adversely affected.
We currently have only a limited sales and marketing infrastructure, and have limited experience in the sales, marketing, customer support or distribution of diagnostic, preventive or other commercial stage products. Our future sales will depend in large part on our ability to develop, and substantially expand, our sales force and to increase the scope of our marketing efforts. We plan to take a measured approach to build out our sales and marketing capabilities and expand and optimize our sales infrastructure to grow our customer base and our business.
Identifying and recruiting qualified personnel and training them in the use of our POCT products, applicable laws and regulations and our internal policies and procedures, requires significant time, expense and attention. It can take prolonged time before our sales representatives are fully trained and productive. If we are unable to hire, develop and retain talented sales personnel or if new sales personnel are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time, we may not be able to realize the expected benefits of this investment or increase our revenue.
There are risks involved with both establishing in-house sales and marketing capabilities and entering into arrangements with third parties to perform these services. Recruiting and training a sales force is expensive and time-consuming and could delay any product launch. If any future authorized test for which we recruit a sales force and establish marketing capabilities is delayed or does not occur for any reason, we would have prematurely or unnecessarily incurred these commercialization expenses. On the other hand, if we enter into arrangements with third parties to perform sales and marketing and customer support services, we likely would have little control over such third parties, and any of them may fail to devote the necessary resources and attention to sell and market our products effectively. If we do not establish sales and marketing capabilities successfully, either on our own or in collaboration with third parties, we will not be successful in commercializing any of our current or future products. Consequently, our business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
In addition to the efforts of our sales force, we believe that future sales will also depend in part on our ability to develop and substantially expand awareness of our brands and products through alternative strategies including through endorsement by celebrities or key opinion leaders, social media-related and online outreach and education and marketing efforts. We have limited experience implementing these types of marketing efforts. Brand promotion activities we undertook may not generate the desired customer awareness or increase revenue and, even if they do, any increase in revenue may not cover the costs and expenses we incur in these activities. There is no assurance that we can attract or retain the customers necessary to realize a sufficient return on any of our brand-building efforts.
We are highly dependent on our senior management team and key advisors and personnel, and our business and operating results could be harmed if we are unable to retain senior management and key personnel and to attract and retain qualified personnel necessary for our business.
We are highly dependent on our senior management team and key advisors and personnel. Our success will depend on our ability to retain senior management and to attract and retain qualified advisors and personnel in the future, including sales and marketing professionals and other highly skilled personnel and to integrate current and additional personnel in all departments. To induce valuable employees to remain at our Company, in addition to salary and cash incentives, we have issued, and will in the future issue, equity incentive awards that vest over time. The value to employees of such equity incentive awards that vest over time may be significantly affected by movements in our share price which is beyond our control, and may at any time be insufficient to counteract more lucrative offers from other companies. Despite our efforts to retain valuable employees, members of our management and development teams may terminate their employment with us on relatively short notice, even where we have employment agreements in place. The standard employment agreement of our employees provides that the employee can terminate the employment by giving at least one month’s notice or payment in lieu of notice, which means that any of our employees could leave their employment at any time on relatively short notice or without notice at all. We also do not maintain “key person” insurance policies on the lives of these people or the lives of any of our other employees. The loss of members of our senior management, sales and marketing professionals and scientists as well as contract employees could result in delays in product development and harm our business. In particular, the
 
34

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
loss of the services of Mr. Danny Yeung, our Director, Chairperson and Chief Executive Officer, Dr. Lawrence Tzang, our Chief Scientific Officer or Mr. Stephen Lo, our Chief Financial Officer, could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our strategic objectives and otherwise have a material adverse impact on our business. If we are not successful in attracting and retaining highly qualified personnel, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be negatively impacted.
Competition for skilled personnel across virtually all areas where we operate and need to attract additional talent is intense. If we are not successful in attracting and retaining highly qualified personnel, the rate and success at which we can develop and commercialize our products will be limited, and our business, financial condition and results of operations would be negatively impacted.
In addition, we rely on our scientific advisory board comprised of accomplished scholars from various fields including infectious disease and microbiology, biochip technology and nanotechnology for molecular diagnostics and therapeutic applications to offer invaluable insights on the latest scientific developments and provide guidelines on development of our pipeline products. If any of our scientific advisor leaves the advisory board, our research and development capabilities may be negatively affected.
Furthermore, in the last twelve months we have experienced significant growth and anticipate further significant growth as we continue to ramp up our business operations. We expect to continue to increase our headcount and to hire more specialized personnel as we grow our business. Rapid expansion in personnel could mean that less experienced people are performing important functions within the company, which could result in inefficiencies and unanticipated costs, reduced quality and disruptions to our operations. If our new hires perform poorly, or if we are unsuccessful in hiring, training, managing and integrating these new employees, we may not be able to maintain the quality of our products or satisfy customer demand and our business may otherwise be materially harmed. Our future success also depends on our ability to continue to retain and motivate current personnel, and if we fail to do so, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be negatively affected.
The sizes of the markets and forecasts of market growth for the demand of our current and pipeline products and services are based on a number of complex assumptions and estimates that are subject to change, and may be inaccurate.
Our estimates of the total addressable markets for our products and services, including COVID-19 testing under Project Screen, CircleDNA, Circle HealthPod, and ColoClear, a colorectal cancer early screening solution, are based on a number of internal and third-party estimates, including those prepared by Frost & Sullivan. Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts included in this prospectus have been derived from a variety of sources, including market research and our own internal estimates, and the conditions supporting our assumptions or estimates may change at any time, thereby of these underlying factors and indicators. Further, the continued development of, and approval or authorizations for, vaccines and therapeutic treatments may affect these market opportunity estimates.
Our market opportunity may also be limited by new diagnostic tests or other products that enter the market. If any of our estimates prove to be inaccurate, the market opportunity for our existing and pipeline products could be significantly less than we estimate. If this turns out to be the case, it may impair our potential for growth and our business and future prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
We may need to raise additional funds to develop our platform, commercialize new products or expand our operations, and we may be unable to raise capital when needed or on acceptable terms.
We may in the future consider raising additional capital for any number of reasons, and to do so, we may seek to sell ordinary or preferred shares or convertible debt securities, enter into one or more credit facilities or another form of third-party funding, or seek other debt financing. We may also need to raise capital sooner or in larger amounts than we anticipate for numerous reasons, including our failure to secure additional regulatory approvals for our testing services and products, lower than anticipated demand for our testing services, or otherwise.
We may also consider raising additional funds in the future to develop our platform, commercialize new products or expand our operation, including to further scale up the manufacturing of our test kits, and
 
35

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
if user demand warrants such increase in scale, to increase our sales and marketing efforts to drive market adoption of our testing services and address competitive developments, and to finance capital expenditures and general and administrative expenses.
Our present and future funding requirements will depend on many factors, some of which are beyond our control, including:

the cost and timing of additional regulatory clearances or approvals for our testing services and products;

our ability to achieve and maintain revenue growth;

the potential cost of and delays in product development as a result of any regulatory oversight applicable to our services and products;

the scope, rate of progress and cost of our current and future clinical trials;

the costs of attaining, defending and enforcing our intellectual property rights;

the terms and timing of any other collaborative, licensing and other arrangements that we may establish; and

the costs of responding to the other risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus.
The various ways we could raise additional capital carry potential risks. If we raise funds by issuing equity securities, the ownership interests of our existing shareholders will be diluted. Any equity securities issued could also provide for rights, preferences, or privileges senior to those of holders of the Ordinary Shares. If we raise funds by issuing debt financing, we may be subject to covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. If we raise additional funds through other third-party funding, collaborations agreements, strategic alliances, licensing arrangements or marketing and distribution arrangements, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or test kits or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us.
Additional funding may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. If we cannot secure additional funding when needed or if financing is not available on satisfactory terms or at all, we may have to delay, reduce the scope of, or eliminate one or more research and development programs or sales and marketing or other initiatives. In addition, our ability to raise additional funds may be adversely impacted by potential worsening global economic conditions and the disruptions to, and volatility in, the credit and financial markets worldwide resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and actions taken to slow its spread, including severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, decline in consumer confidence, decline in economic growth, increase in unemployment rates, and uncertainty about economic stability. If the equity and credit markets deteriorate, we may make any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult, more costly and more dilutive. If we are unable to obtain the requisite amount of financing needed to fund our planned operations, our ability to grow and support our business and to respond to market challenges could be significantly limited, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We plan to enter new business areas, such as clinical genetic testing and personalized care, where we do not have any experience or have minimal experience. We would likely face competition from entities more familiar with those businesses, and our efforts may not succeed.
We plan to expand our operations into business areas such as clinical genetic testing and personalized care, where we do not have any experience or have minimal experience. These areas would be new to our product development, sales and marketing personnel, and we cannot be assured that the markets for these products and services will develop or that we will be able to compete effectively or will generate significant revenues in these new areas. Many companies of all sizes, including major pharmaceutical companies and specialized biotechnology companies, are engaged in redesigning approaches to clinical-level medical care and personalized care. Competitors operating in these potential new business areas may have substantially greater financial and other resources, larger research and development staff and more experience in these
 
36

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
business areas. There can be no assurances that if we undertake to enter into any of the new business areas, the market will accept our offerings, or that such offerings will generate significant revenues for us.
We may engage in acquisitions, investments or strategic alliances in the future, which could require significant management attention and resources, may not achieve their intended results and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Although we currently have no agreements or commitments to complete any such transactions and are not involved in negotiations to do so, we may pursue acquisitions of businesses and assets in the future. We may pursue strategic alliances and additional joint ventures that could leverage our platform and industry experience to expand our offerings or distribution. We may not be able to find suitable partners or acquisition candidates in the future, and we may not be able to complete such transactions on favorable terms, if at all. If we make any acquisitions, we may not be able to integrate these acquisitions successfully into its existing business, and we could assume unknown or contingent liabilities. Any future acquisitions also could result in the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities or future write-offs of intangible assets or goodwill, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, any pursuit of an acquisition and any potential integration of an acquired company also may disrupt ongoing operations and divert management attention and resources that we would otherwise focus on developing our existing business. We may experience losses related to investments in other companies, which could have a material negative effect on our results of operations and financial condition. We may not realize the anticipated benefits of any acquisition, technology license, strategic alliance or joint venture.
We may incur debt or assume contingent or other liabilities or dilute our shareholders in connection with acquisitions or strategic alliances.
We may issue equity securities to pay for future acquisitions or strategic alliances, which could be dilutive to existing shareholders. We may incur debt or assume contingent or other liabilities in connection with acquisitions and strategic alliances, which could impose restrictions on our business operations and harm our operating results. Further, any additional equity financing, debt financing, or credit facility used for such acquisitions may not be on favorable terms, and any such financing or facility may place restrictions on our business. In addition, to the extent that the economic benefits associated with any of our acquisitions diminish in the future, we may incur incremental operating losses, and may be required to record additional write downs of goodwill, intangible assets or other assets associated with such acquisitions, which would adversely affect our operating results.
If we fail to implement and maintain an effective system of internal controls in the future, we may be unable to accurately report our financial condition or results of operations, which may adversely affect investor confidence in us and, as a result, the market price of the Ordinary Shares and the Warrants.
We have been a private company since our inception and, as such, we has not had the internal control and financial reporting requirements that are required of a publicly traded company. Following the completion of the Business Combination, we have become a public company in the United States subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, will require that we include a report from management on our internal control over financial reporting in our annual report on Form 20-F beginning with our annual report for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2023. In addition, once we cease to be an “emerging growth company” as such term is defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our management may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective. Moreover, even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue a report that is qualified if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated, or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. We may be unable to timely complete the evaluation testing and any required remediation.
 
37

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
In the course of preparing our consolidated statements of financial position as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the related consolidated statements of profit or loss and other comprehensive income, changes in equity and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes, we identified certain deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting, which related to (i) Information Technology (“IT”) general controls over the key IT applications supporting the business operations and financial reporting; (ii) the absence of a set of comprehensive written internal controls and financial reporting policies and procedures; and (iii) gaps in our preparation of the tax accounting particularly relating to the deferred tax calculation and provisioning for the U.K. operations, but none of which we assessed constituted a material weakness or significant deficiency.
We are committed to remediating these deficiencies as promptly as possible. However, there can be no assurance as to when these deficiencies will be remediated or that additional deficiencies, which may be significant, or material weaknesses will not arise in the future. Even effective internal control can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements. Any failure to remediate the deficiencies, or the development of new deficiencies or material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, could result in material misstatements in our financial statements, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
Ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets or inaccurate reporting of financial conditions and results of operations and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which we are listed, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions. We may also be required to restate our financial statements from prior periods. If we fail to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could in turn limit our access to capital markets, result in deterioration in our financial condition and results of operations, and lead to a decline in the market price of the Class A Ordinary Shares and the Warrants.
U.K.’s withdrawal from the European Union could have an adverse impact on our business.
The changes to the trading relationship between the U.K. and the European Union resulting from the U.K.’s exit from the European Union on January 31, 2020, commonly referred to as “Brexit,” may result in additional regulatory requirements for us to market our products and services in the U.K. and an increased cost of goods imported into and exported from the U.K. Additional currency volatility could result in a weaker British pound, which increases the cost of goods imported into the U.K. and reduces the value in U.S. dollar terms of sales to the U.K.-based customers. Our business in the U.K. may be adversely impacted by ongoing uncertainty related to the fluctuations in currency exchange rates, changes in trade policies, or changes in tax, data privacy or other laws. Any of these effects, among others, could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
If we, our suppliers or our contract manufacturers experience any significant business disruptions, our operations and financial condition could be seriously harmed.
Our operations, or those of our suppliers or our contract manufacturers could be subject to earthquakes, power shortages, telecommunications failures, water shortages, floods, hurricanes, typhoons, fires, extreme weather conditions, medical epidemics and pandemics, including the COVID-19 pandemic, and other natural or man-made disasters or business interruptions. Our corporate headquarters are located in Hong Kong, which, as a coastal city with a sub-tropical climate, frequently experiences storms, floods and typhoons, and our suppliers and contract manufacturers may be subject to similar risks. Our ability to obtain components for our test kits could be disrupted if the operations of these suppliers were affected by a man-made or natural disaster or other business interruption. In addition, we rely on third-party contract manufacturers for the manufacture of all of our test kits. The occurrence of any type of business disruption at any of our own facilities or those of our suppliers or contract manufacturers could materially harm our operations, financial condition and results of operations. We do not maintain insurance that covers us for all business interruption risks we face.
 
38

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
We depend on the information systems of our own and those of third parties for the effective service on our websites, mobile applications, or in our computer or logistics systems, and the overall effective and efficient functioning of our business. Failure to maintain or protect our information systems and data integrity effectively could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We depend on our information systems and for the effective and efficient functioning of our business, including the manufacture, distribution and maintenance of our COVID-19 and genetic testing kits, as well as for accounting, data storage, compliance, purchasing and inventory management. Our and our third-party collaborator’s information systems may be subject to computer viruses, ransomware or other malware, attacks by computer hackers, failures during the process of upgrading or replacing software, databases or components thereof, damage or interruption from fires or other natural disasters, hardware failures, telecommunication failures and user errors, among other malfunctions and other cyber-attacks. We and our third-party collaborators could be subject to an unintentional event that involves a third-party gaining unauthorized access to our systems, which could disrupt our operations, corrupt our data or result in release of our confidential information. Additionally, theft of our intellectual property or proprietary business information could require substantial expenditures to remedy and even then may not be able to be remedied in full. Although the aggregate impact of the foregoing on our operations and financial condition has not been material to date, we may have been and going forward will continue to be the target of events of this nature as cybersecurity threats have been rapidly evolving in sophistication and becoming more prevalent in the industry. Third parties upon whom we rely or with whom we have business relationships, including our customers, collaborators, suppliers, and others are subject to similar risks that could potentially have an adverse effect on our business.
Technological interruptions could disrupt operations, including the ability to timely ship and track product orders, project inventory requirements, manage supply chain and otherwise adequately service our customers or disrupt our customers’ ability to use our test kits. In addition, we rely heavily on providers of transport services for reliable and secure point-to-point transport of test kits to our customers and users and for tracking of these shipments. Should a carrier encounter delivery performance issues such as loss, damage or destruction of any systems, it would be costly to replace such systems in a timely manner and such occurrences may damage our reputation and lead to decreased demand for our test kits and increased cost and expense to our business.
Additionally, our business model is dependent on our ability to deliver various test kits to customers and have such test kits processed and returned to us. This requires coordination between our logistics providers and third-party shipping services. Operational disruptions may be caused by factors outside of our control such as hostilities, political unrest, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, pandemics and public health emergencies, such as COVID-19, affecting the geographies where our operations and customers are located.
We may not be effective at preventing or mitigating the effects of such disruptions, particularly in the case of a catastrophic event. In addition, operational disruptions may occur during the holiday season, causing delays or failures in deliveries of test kits. Any such disruption may result in lost revenues, a loss of customers and reputational damage, which would have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
In the event we or our third-party collaborators experience significant disruptions, we may be unable to repair such systems in an efficient and timely manner. Accordingly, such events may disrupt or reduce the efficiency of our entire operation and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Currently, we carry business interruption coverage to mitigate certain potential losses but this insurance is limited in amount and subject to deductibles, exclusions and limitations, and we cannot be certain that such potential losses will not exceed our policy limits. Our information systems require an ongoing commitment of significant resources to maintain, protect and enhance our existing systems. Failure to maintain or protect our information systems and data integrity effectively could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Like other companies, our business has been and will continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, the spread of COVID-19 has caused us to modify our business practices (including on-site
 
39

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
employee and visitor testing, employee travel, employee work locations, and the cancellation of physical participation in meetings, events and conferences). The degree to which COVID-19 will impact our business and operations going forward is unknown and will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including, but not limited to, the continued duration and spread of the outbreak, the emergence of novel variants, the degree of severity of the outbreak and existing and new variants, the development and administration of existing and new therapeutic treatments and vaccines, the actions taken by national, regional, and local governments and health officials to contain the virus or treat its impact, how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume, whether the supply of components and raw materials will remain sufficient to satisfy demand and any impact on the pricing, and whether any of our third-party contract manufacturers or collaborators experience any business interruptions that could result in the delay of delivery of our products or components. Even after the outbreak of COVID-19 subsides, we may experience material adverse impacts to our business as a result of its global economic impact, including any recession or other negative social, economic and political consequences that may occur as a result of the pandemic.
Risks Relating to Government Regulation
Our business collects and processes a large amount of data including personal information, and we will face legal, reputational, and financial risks if we fail to protect our customers’ data from security breaches or cyberattacks. We are also subject to various laws and regulations relating to privacy or the protection or transfer of data relating to individuals, and any change in such laws and regulations or any failure by us to comply with such laws and regulations could adversely affect our business.
We collect and store sensitive data, including personally identifiable information, genetic information, payment information, intellectual property and proprietary business information owned or controlled by ourselves, our customers, or other parties. We manage and maintain our data and applications utilizing cloud-based systems. We also protect sensitive customer data by logically segregating access and storage of personally identifiable and genetic data from other business operations involving data processing. We identify a variety of risks in connection of protecting the critical customer and business information, including loss of access risk, inappropriate disclosure, inappropriate modification, and the risk of us being unable to adequately monitor and modify controls over our critical information.
Any technical problems that may arise in connection with our data and systems, including those that are hosted by third-party providers, could result in interruptions to our business and operations or exposure to security vulnerabilities. These types of problems may be caused by a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, intentional or accidental human actions or omissions, software errors, malware, viruses, security attacks, fraud, spikes in customer usage and denial of service issues. From time to time, large third-party web hosting providers utilized by us may experience outages or other problems that would result in their systems being offline and inaccessible, which could materially impact our business and operations. In addition, our various customer tools and platforms are currently accessible through our online portal and/or through our mobile applications, which may also be exposed to security breaches.
The secure processing, storage, maintenance and transmission of critical customer and business information are vital to our operations and our business strategy. Although we devote significant resources to protecting such information and take what we believe to be reasonable and appropriate measures, including a formal and dedicated enterprise security program, to protect sensitive information from compromises such as unauthorized access, disclosure, or modification or lack of availability, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or viruses or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. We may be exposed to significant monetary damages which are not covered by our liability insurance. Further, a security breach could require us to expend substantial additional resources related to the security of our information systems and providing required breach notifications, diverting resources from other projects and disrupting our businesses.
In addition to data security risks, we also face data privacy risks. Should we actually violate, or be perceived to have violated, any privacy promises we make to our customers, we could be subject to a complaint from an affected individual or interested privacy regulator, such as the Office of the Privacy Commissioner for Personal Data in Hong Kong and the Information Commissioner in the U.K. This risk is
 
40

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
heightened given the sensitivity of the data we collect. Even the perception that the privacy of personal information is not satisfactorily protected or does not meet regulatory or contractual requirements could inhibit sales of our solutions, and any failure to comply with such laws, regulations and contractual requirements could lead to significant fines, penalties or other liabilities.
There has been unprecedented activity in the development of data protection regulation around the world, and as a result, the interpretation and application of consumer, health-related and data protection laws in Hong Kong, the U.K., Europe and other jurisdictions in which we conduct business are often uncertain, contradictory and in flux. Numerous local and international laws and regulations address privacy and the collection, storing, sharing, use, disclosure, and protection of certain types of data in jurisdictions where we operate, including the Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance in Hong Kong, or “PDPO” and the U.K. GDPR. These laws, rules, and regulations evolve frequently and their scope may continually change, through new legislation, amendments to existing legislation, and changes in enforcement, and may be inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another.
The PDPO applies to data users that control the collection, holding, processing or use of personal data in Hong Kong and does not have extraterritorial effect. The PDPO does not specifically govern the use of human genetic data or other sensitive personal data, and we are subject to the general requirements under PDPO including to obtain the prescribed consent of the data subject and to take all practicable steps to protect the personal data held by data users against unauthorized or accidental access, loss or use. Breaches of the PDPO may lead to a variety of civil and criminal sanctions including fines up to HK$100,000 and imprisonment of up to two years. In addition, data subjects have a right to bring proceedings in court to seek compensation for damage.
We also have operations in the U.K. and the European Union and are therefore required to comply with increasingly complex and changing data security and privacy regulations in the U.K. and the European Union that regulate the collection, use and transfer of personal data, including the transfer of personal data between or among countries. For example, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation, or “GDPR,” now also enacted in the U.K., or “the U.K. GDPR,” as well as the U.K. Data Protection Act (2018), or “DPA,” have imposed stringent compliance obligations regarding the handling of personal data and have resulted in the issuance of significant financial penalties for noncompliance.
The U.K. GDPR and GDPR broadly apply to any entity established in the U.K. and the European Union as well as extraterritorially to any entity outside the U.K. and the European Union that offers goods or services to, or monitors the behavior of, individuals who are located in the U.K. and the European Union. The GDPR imposes strict requirements on controllers and processors of personal data, including enhanced protections for “special categories” of personal data, which includes sensitive information such as health and genetic information of data subjects. As a controller and processor of personal data, we are subject to extensive obligations related to the collection, recording, use, storage, disclosure and destruction of any test results and associated personal data by our services, laboratories, websites and applications in accordance with the various data protection principles prescribed under the U.K. GDPR, and “genetic data” and “data concerning health” which we collect in connection with our testing services constitute a special category of data under the U.K. GDPR and the DPA, and are subject to more stringent rules that provide more protection of such data given the sensitive nature. The U.K. GDPR and GDPR also grant individuals various rights to seek legal remedies in relation to their personal data if the individual believes his or her rights have been violated, including the rights of access, rectification, objection to certain processing and deletion. Failure to comply with the requirements of the GDPR or the related national data protection laws may result in significant administrative fines issued by the U.K. or European Union regulators. Under the U.K. GDPR, the Information Commissioner can impose significant administrative fines on both data controllers and data processors. There are two tiers of such fines, which are the higher of up to £8.7 million or 2% of global turnover, or the higher of up to £17.5 million or 4% of global turnover. Under the GDPR, maximum penalties for violations are capped at 20 million euros or 4% of an organization’s annual global revenue, whichever is greater.
Despite our efforts to comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other obligations relating to privacy, data protection, and information security, it is possible that our interpretations of the law or other obligations, practices, or platform could be inconsistent with, or fail or be alleged to fail to meet all requirements of,
 
41

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
such laws, regulations, or obligations. If so, this could result in government-imposed fines or orders requiring us to change our commercial practices, which could disrupt our operations and adversely affect our business.
In addition, these privacy laws and regulations may differ from country to country and region to region, and our obligations under these laws and regulations vary based on the nature of our activities in the particular jurisdiction, such as whether we collect samples from individuals in the local jurisdiction, perform testing in the local jurisdiction, or process personal information regarding employees or other individuals in the local jurisdiction. Complying with changing regulatory requirements requires us to incur substantial costs, exposes us to potential regulatory action or litigation, and may require changes to our business practices in certain jurisdictions, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business operations and operating results. There is no assurance that we are or will remain in compliance with diverse privacy and data security requirements in all of the jurisdictions in which we currently operate and may operate in the future. Failure of us to comply with applicable laws or regulations or any other obligations relating to privacy, data protection, or information security, or any compromise of security that results in unauthorized access to, or use or release of personally identifiable information or other data relating to our customers, or other individuals, or the perception that any of the foregoing types of failure or compromise has occurred, could damage our reputation and brand, discourage new and existing customers from using our platform, or result in fines, investigations, or proceedings by governmental agencies and private claims and litigation, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our products and services are and will continue to be subject to extensive regulation, compliance of which could be costly and time-consuming or may cause unanticipated delays or prevent the receipt of the required approvals to offer our products and services.
Our testing products are classified as medical devices and the manufacture, labeling, advertising, promotion, post-market surveillance and marketing of medical devices are subject to extensive regulation in various jurisdictions in which we operate. Government regulation of medical devices is meant to assure their safety and effectiveness, and includes regulation of, among other things:

design, development and manufacturing;

testing, labeling, including directions for use, processes, controls, quality assurance, packaging, storage, distribution, installation and servicing;

clinical trials and validation studies;

registration and listing;

marketing, sales and distribution;

recordkeeping procedures;

advertising and promotion;

pre-market authorization;

corrections, removals and recalls;

post-market surveillance, including reporting of deaths or serious injuries, and malfunctions that, if they were to recur, would be likely to cause or contribute to a death or serious injury; and

product import and export.
In Hong Kong, medical device manufacturers may voluntarily complete an application and registration with the Medical Device Division of the Department of Health of Hong Kong in the Medical Device Administrative Control System, for which the applicant must demonstrate the safety and performance of the medical devices by submitting a number of supporting documents including test reports of the device’s chemical, physical and biological properties, and a performance evaluation report including evaluation of analytical performance and clinical performance of the device to demonstrate that the device achieves its intended purpose. In the U.K. and the European Union, IVD devices must comply with the essential safety, health, design and manufacturing requirements under EU IVDD. Beginning in January 1, 2021, IVD device
 
42

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
manufacturers can also sell a device by registering with the MHRA. Under the MHRA requirements, IVD devices must meet essential requirements according to Part IV MDR 2002 Annex I and be registered with the MHRA.
We officially launched Circle HealthPod in Hong Kong on November 18, 2021. We are required to carry out clinical trials and prepare usability studies in the U.S., the U.K. and Hong Kong to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the product. We have commenced a clinical validation and completed a usability study with UserWise Inc., a U.S. based consulting firm focused on U.S. FDA compliance, regulatory approval and usability engineering services for medical products, in preparation for obtaining EUA from U.S. FDA to certify Circle HealthPod for home use and professional use. We are also preparing to apply for European Union notified body assessment as required by EU IVDD to certify Circle HealthPod for home use. There is no guarantee that we will receive any such regulatory approvals. In the U.S., IVD devices are regulated by the FDA in accordance with the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 and its implementing regulations (“FDCA”). IVD devices are subject to pre- market and post market controls to assure their safety and effectiveness. Pre-market controls involve approval or clearance via a 501(k) pre-market submission (“501(k) submission”), De Novo classification request (“De Novo request”), or a pre-market approval (“PMA”), unless an exemption applies. During public emergencies, when the Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) Secretary declares that an emergency use authorization is appropriate, the FDA Commissioner may also grant EUAs, which allow the use of unapproved medical products to be used in a public emergency to diagnose, treat, or prevent serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions when the following statutory criteria have been met: (i) a serious or life-threatening condition exists; (ii) evidence of effectiveness of the device exists; (iii) a risk-benefit analysis shows that the benefits of the product outweigh the risks; and (iv) no other alternatives exist for diagnosing, preventing or treating the disease or condition.
Evidence of effectiveness includes medical devices that “may be effective” to prevent, diagnose, or treat the disease or condition identified in a declaration of emergency issued by the Secretary of HHS. The FDA assesses the potential effectiveness of a possible EUA product on a case-by-case basis using a risk-benefit analysis. In determining whether the known and potential benefits of the product outweigh the known and potential risks, the FDA examines the totality of the scientific evidence to make an overall risk-benefit determination. Such evidence, which could arise from a variety of sources, may include (but is not limited to) results of domestic and foreign clinical trials, in vivo efficacy data from animal models, in vitro data, as well as the quality and quantity of the available evidence. After receiving approval for marketing IVD devices, the FDA may require post-market surveillance for class II and class III medical devices when deemed by the FDA to be necessary to protect the public health or to provide additional safety and effectiveness data for the device. The FDA can also order post-market surveillance as a response to adverse event reports, to assess safety and effectiveness of devices that have undergone limited pre-market testing, or to obtain more information on device performance.
The incurrence or commencement of any such action would harm our reputation and cause sales of our tests to suffer and may prevent us from generating revenue.
If regulatory authorities conclude that any aspect of our business operations does not comply with applicable law, we may be subject to penalties and other damages and sales of our testing products may also suffer.
Our testing products are subject to various regulatory guidelines, and any identified deficiencies or quality issues in the components of the test kits and testing devices could result in product recalls and could harm our reputation, business and financial results.
Our testing products are subject to various regulatory guidelines, and in certain jurisdictions in which we operate, may be subject to recall of commercialized products in the event of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture that could affect patient safety.
For example, for IVD devices that are subject to U.S. FDA regulations, FDA may require post-market surveillance after the devices receive approval for marketing when FDA deems necessary to protect the public health or to provide additional safety and effectiveness data for the device. Identified quality problems, such as failure of critical components or the failure of third parties to supply us with sufficient conforming quantities of these components, could impact the availability of our test kits in the marketplace or lead to
 
43

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
adverse events that could subject us to post-market surveillance ordered by FDA to assess safety and effectiveness of devices that have undergone limited pre-market testing, or to obtain more information on device performance. Although medical device recalls are usually conducted voluntarily by a device manufacturer, the manufacturer is required to make a report to the FDA detailing any correction or removal of a medical device if the correction or removal was initiated to reduce a risk to health posed by the device or to remedy a violation of legislation caused by the device which may present a risk to health. Where the manufacturer fails to voluntarily recall a device that is a risk to health, the FDA may issue a recall order to the manufacturer. Product complaints, quality issues and necessary corrective and preventive actions could result in communications to customers or patients, field actions, the scrapping, rework, recall or replacement of products, substantial costs and write-offs, and harm to our business reputation and financial results.
As a result, any identified quality issue can both harm our business reputation and result in substantial costs and write-offs, which in either case could materially harm our business and financial results.
We plan to expand our business and operations internationally to various jurisdictions in which we do not currently operate and where we have limited operating experience, all of which exposes us to business, regulatory, political, operational and financial risk.
One of our key business strategies is to pursue international expansion of our business operations and market our products in multiple jurisdictions. For example, Circle HealthPod has been marked with CE-IVD for professional use, which allows us to sell the device in the European Union and the U.K. for professional use. We have commenced a clinical validation and completed a usability study with UserWise Inc., a U.S. based consulting firm focused on U.S. FDA compliance, regulatory approval and usability engineering services for medical products, in preparation for obtaining EUA from U.S. FDA to certify Circle HealthPod for home use and professional use. We are also preparing to apply for European Union notified body assessment as required by EU IVDD to certify Circle HealthPod for home use. Additionally, we are preparing to obtain the authorizations, licenses and registrations to distribute Circle HealthPod as a professional-use and home-use IVD medical device in various other jurisdictions, including Taiwan, Singapore, Vietnam, Cambodia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. There is no guarantee that we will receive any such regulatory approvals.
As a result, we expect that our business will be subject to a variety of risks associated with doing business internationally, including an increase in our expenses and diversion of the management’s attention from other aspects of our business. Accordingly, our business and financial results in the future could be adversely affected due to a variety of factors, including:

political, social and/or economic instability;

risks related to governmental regulations in foreign jurisdictions and unexpected changes in regulatory requirements and enforcement;

fluctuations in currency exchange rates;

higher levels of credit risk and payment fraud;

burdens of complying with a variety of foreign laws;

complexities and difficulties in obtaining intellectual property protection and reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;

difficulties in staffing and managing global operations and the increased travel, infrastructure and legal compliance costs associated with multiple international locations and subsidiaries;

management of tax consequences and compliance; and

other challenges caused by distance, language, and cultural differences, making it harder to do business in certain international jurisdictions.
In addition, we may be subject to increased regulatory risks and local competition in various jurisdictions where we plan to expand operations but have limited operating experience. Such increased regulatory burden and competition may limit the available market for our products and services and increase the costs associated with marketing the products and services where we are able to offer our products. If we are
 
44

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
unable to manage the complexity of global operations successfully, or fail to comply with any of the regulations in other jurisdictions, our financial performance and operating results could suffer.
Risks Relating to Intellectual Property and Legal Proceedings
We may be subject to legal proceedings and litigation, which are costly to defend, and adverse publicity about any investigation, litigation, regulatory or legal action against us or our senior management could harm our reputation and business.
We and our management may become, involved in legal proceedings relating to patent and other intellectual property matters, product liability claims, employee claims, tort or contract claims, regulatory investigations, and other legal proceedings or investigations, which could have a negative impact on our reputation, business and financial condition and divert the attention of the management from the operation of our business.
Litigation and other legal proceedings are inherently unpredictable and can result in excessive or unanticipated verdicts and/or injunctive relief that affect how we operate our business. We could incur judgments or enter into settlements of claims for monetary damages or for agreements to change the way we operate our business, or both. There may be an increase in the scope of these matters or there may be additional lawsuits, claims, proceedings or investigations in the future, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, adverse publicity about regulatory or legal action against us could damage our reputation and brand image, undermine our customers’ confidence and reduce long-term demand for our test kits, even if the regulatory or legal action is unfounded or not material to our operations.
Our patent and other intellectual property protection may not be sufficient, and if we are unable to obtain, maintain and protect our intellectual property rights and proprietary information or prevent third-parties from making unauthorized use of our technology, our business could be harmed.
As with other diagnostic testing companies, our success depends in large part on our and our licensors’ success in obtaining and maintaining effective patent protection and other intellectual property in Hong Kong, the U.K. and other jurisdictions, with respect to, such tests, their manufacturing processes and their intended methods of use, as well as enforcing those patent claims once granted and other intellectual property rights. The patent prosecution process is expensive and time-consuming, and we may not be able to file, prosecute, maintain, enforce or license all necessary or desirable patents or patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner, in all jurisdictions, or at all. Any failure to obtain or maintain patent and other intellectual property protection with respect to our current and any future tests or other aspects of our business could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We depend on our technology, intellectual property and services for our success and ability to compete. We rely and expect to continue to rely on a combination of non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with our employees, third-party collaborators, suppliers, consultants, advisors and other third parties with whom we have relationships and who may have access to confidential or patentable aspects of our research and development outputs, as well as trademark, copyright, patent and trade secret protection laws, to protect our proprietary rights. Any of our intellectual property rights could be challenged, invalidated, circumvented or misappropriated, or such intellectual property may not be sufficient to provide us with competitive advantages.
We do not currently own any issued patents material to our businesses, but have filed certain patent applications in China. There can be no assurance that our applications for registration of patents, trademarks and other intellectual property rights will be approved. Although we enter into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose such outputs before a patent application is filed, thereby jeopardizing our ability to seek and obtain patent protection. We may choose not to seek patent protection for certain innovations and may choose not to pursue patent protection in certain jurisdictions, and under the laws of certain jurisdictions, patents or other intellectual property rights may be unavailable or limited in scope. It is also possible that we will fail to identify patentable aspects of our developments before it is too late to obtain patent protection. In addition, our ability to obtain and
 
45

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
maintain valid and enforceable patents depends in part on whether the differences between our inventions and prior art allow our inventions to be patentable over the prior art.
In addition, we rely substantially upon trademarks to build and maintain the integrity of our brands. Our registered and unregistered trademarks or trade names may be challenged, infringed, circumvented, declared unenforceable or determined to be violating or infringing on other intellectual property rights. We may not be able to sufficiently protect or successfully enforce our rights to these trademarks and trade names.
Further, there can be no assurance that any intellectual property rights will be adequately protected, or that such intellectual property rights will not be challenged by third parties or found by a judicial authority to be invalid or unenforceable. Confidentiality, invention assignment and non-compete agreements may be breached by counterparties, and there may not be adequate remedies available to us for any such breach. Additionally, we may be subject to claims from third parties challenging our ownership interest in or inventorship of intellectual property we regard as our own, for example, based on claims that our agreements with employees or consultants obligating them to assign intellectual property to us are ineffective or in conflict with prior or competing contractual obligations to assign inventions to another employer, to a former employer, or to another person or entity. Accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights or to enforce our contractual rights. Policing any unauthorized use of intellectual property is difficult and costly, and the steps we may take may be inadequate to prevent the infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property. Furthermore, litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Litigation and/or any of the events above could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources, and could put our intellectual property at risk of being invalidated or narrowed in scope. We can provide no assurance that we will prevail in such litigation, and even if we do prevail, we may not obtain a meaningful recovery. In addition, our trade secrets may be leaked or otherwise become available to, or be independently discovered by, our competitors. Any failure in maintaining, protecting or enforcing our intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have granted an exclusive license to a third-party contract manufacturer to use our intellectual property to manufacture and deliver COVID-19 test kits to us pursuant to a manufacturing agreement. We therefore must rely on such manufacturing agreement for COVID-19 test kits manufactured in mainland China and cannot, by ourselves or through a different third party, use the exclusively licensed intellectual property to develop, make, use, import, export and market the technology for such test kits in mainland China.
We depend, and may depend in the future, on intellectual property licensed from third parties for development and commercialization of certain products, and the termination of the licenses or other agreements permitting us to use such intellectual property or failure of such third parties to maintain or protect such intellectual property could result in the loss of significant rights by us, which would harm our business.
On June 10, 2020, Oxsed, a wholly owned subsidiary of Prenetics HK, entered into a patent license agreement (the “OUI-Oxford Suzhou Agreement”) with Oxford Suzhou, and Oxford University Innovation Limited. Pursuant to the terms of the OUI-Oxford Suzhou Agreement, OUI and Oxford Suzhou granted us a worldwide exclusive license to develop, make, have made, use and have used, import, export and market certain licensed products in COVID-19 testing and diagnosis relating to a pending Chinese patent application entitled “Primers for detecting novel coronavirus SAR-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, and test kits, methods and applications thereof” and a pending U.K. patent application entitled “Optimised primer design to stabalise the performance of RT-LAMP,” regarding the primer and molecular switch technologies that are integral to the nucleic acid amplification technology.
On October 6, 2020, Oxsed entered into a patent license agreement (the “NEB Agreement”) with New England Biolabs Inc., or NEB. Pursuant to the terms of the NEB Agreement, NEB granted us a limited royalty bearing, non-exclusive, non-transferable, non-sublicensable, worldwide license under NEB’s rights in their licensed patents to use certain NEB products to make, have made, use, offer to sell, sell, have sold under our label and export certain licensed products relating to colorimetric LAMP for clinical diagnostic, investigational and research use.
 
46

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
On October 12, 2020, Oxsed entered into a patent license agreement (the “Eiken Agreement”) with Eiken Chemical Co., Ltd. (“Eiken”) under which Eiken granted to Oxsed a personal and non-exclusive licenses under the “Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification” ​(the “LAMP”) patents to develop and make any reagent, product, kit, device, equipment, instrument and/or system for nucleic acid in-vitro diagnostic tests for the detection of a SARS-CoV-2 (the “Eiken Licensed Products”), and use, sell, offer for sale or otherwise dispose of the Eiken Licensed Products made under Oxsed’s own labels in the U.K. Under the terms of the Eiken Agreement, Oxsed also has an option to expand the license to develop and sell the Eiken Licensed Products outside the U.K. for a payment of additional fees. We are currently in discussions with Eiken to exercise such option for certain of its target geographies.
We are dependent on LAMP patents licensed from Eiken for commercializing our COVID-19 test kit and also are dependent on LAMP to enhance the testing speed and testing accuracy of our COVID-19 testing techniques. However, Eiken may license patents to additional third parties for the use of LAMP, and if such third parties were able to independently develop or license the ability to detect SARS-CoV-2, then our business could be harmed.
We are also dependent on the exclusive license from New Horizon Health to market, promote, sell, distribute, and to provide testing services using the ColoClear technology for diagnostic use for colorectal cancer and adenoma in Hong Kong, Macau and the Philippines under Prenetics HK’s collaboration agreement with New Horizon Health and NHH Hangzhou (the “New Horizon Agreement”) entered into in July 2019 and a supplemental agreement entered into in December 2019. Under the New Horizon Agreement, Prenetics HK has the right to apply for applicable FDA approval for the ColoClear product, if required. All intellectual property developed or generated based on or in connection with the collaboration shall be jointly owned by New Horizon Health and Prenetics HK. New Horizon Health shall have the right of first refusal to license such newly developed intellectual property to any third parties. Co-owned intellectual property rights will limit our ability to use and exploit such intellectual property and New Horizon Health, as the other co-owner, may license rights to third parties, including our competitors, who could market competing products and technology. In addition, we may need the cooperation of any such joint owners in order to enforce such intellectual property against third parties, and such cooperation may not be provided. We cannot provide any assurance with respect to the success of any research, development or commercialization efforts pursuant to the New Horizon Agreement. In addition, Prenetics HK splits the gross income generated in connection with the ColoClear product and its related services with New Horizon Health.
Either New Horizon Health or Prenetics HK has the right to terminate the New Horizon Agreement at any time during the initial term of five years for convenience by providing the other party with three-months’ prior written notice. Under the Eiken Agreement, although Eiken cannot terminate for convenience, it may terminate the agreement under certain conditions, including an uncured default by Oxsed or its affiliates. As a result, if Oxsed were determined to have breached the Eiken Agreement, Eiken would have the right to terminate the Eiken Agreement, which would result in the loss of Oxsed’s rights to the patents licensed to it, and we would therefore not be able to sell and/or market our test kits that are covered by those patents licensed to it.
If the New Horizon Agreement or the Eiken Agreement were to be terminated, we will lose licenses for intellectual property that are important to our business, and as a result, we may not be able to continue developing, selling or commercializing our test kits for COVID-19 or colorectal cancer. This would adversely affect our competitive business position and harm our business prospects. Moreover, disputes, arbitration, litigation or other proceedings with Eiken or New Horizon could last for an extended period of time, may not be resolved in a favorable manner and could result in substantial damages payable by us and would divert management’s attention.
We could be sued for products liability, which could result in substantial liabilities that exceed our resources.
The marketing, sale and use of our current and future tests and products could lead to the filing of products liability claims where someone may allege that our tests identified inaccurate or incomplete information or otherwise failed to perform as designed. In addition, we may be subject to products liability
 
47

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
claims resulting from misuse of our testing products. A products liability claim could result in substantial damages and be costly and time-consuming to defend. Regardless of merit or eventual outcome, products liability claims may result in:

sustained litigation costs;

distraction of management’s attention from our primary business;

the inability to continue commercializing other new products;

decreased demand for our existing products;

damage to our business reputation;

product recalls or withdrawals from the market;

withdrawal of clinical trial participants;

substantial monetary awards to users, customers or other claimants;

loss of sales; or

termination of existing agreements by our collaborators and failing to partner with potential collaborators.
If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against products liability claims, we may incur substantial liabilities and reputational harm, which could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be subject to claims that our employees, consultants or independent contractors have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information of third parties or that our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their former employers.
We employ, and expect to employ in the future, individuals who were previously employed at universities or other companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees, consultants and independent contractors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that our employees, consultants or independent contractors have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of their former employers or other third parties, or to claims that we have improperly used or obtained such trade secrets. Also, we may in the future be subject to claims that these people are violating non-compete agreements with their former employers. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel, which could adversely impact our business. A loss of key research personnel work product could hamper or prevent our ability to commercialize potential products and services, which could harm our business. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees.
The diagnostic testing industry is characterized by intellectual property litigation and in the future we may be involved in patent litigation or other intellectual property infringement claims or administrative proceedings with respect to intellectual property that could be costly, result in the diversion of management’s time and efforts, and may disrupt our business and operations.
Litigation regarding patents, trademarks, trade secrets, and other intellectual property rights is prevalent in the medical device and diagnostic sectors and companies in these sectors have used intellectual property litigation to gain a competitive advantage. Our commercial success depends in part upon our ability and that of our contract manufacturers and suppliers to manufacture, market, and sell our planned tests, and to use our proprietary technologies without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the proprietary rights or intellectual property of third parties. Because we have not conducted a formal freedom to operate analysis for patents related to our test kits, we may not be aware of issued patents that a third-party might assert are infringed by our current or any future test kits, which could materially impair our ability to commercialize our current or any future test kits. Even if we diligently search third-party patents for potential infringement by our current or any future test kits, we may not successfully find patents that
 
48

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
our current or any future test kits may infringe. If we are unable to secure and maintain freedom to operate, others could preclude us from commercializing our current or future test kits. We may in the future become party to, or be threatened with, adversarial proceedings or litigation regarding intellectual property rights with respect to our current and any future test kits and technology, whether or not we are actually infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the rights of third parties. Additional third parties may assert infringement claims against us based on existing or future intellectual property rights, regardless of merit. If we are found to infringe a third-party’s intellectual property rights, we could be required to obtain a license from such third-party to continue developing and marketing our current and any future test kits and technology. We may also elect to enter into such a license to settle pending or threatened litigation. However, we may not be able to obtain any required license on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Even if we were able to obtain a license, it could be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technologies licensed to us, and could require us to pay significant royalties and other fees. We could be forced, including by court order, to cease commercializing the infringing technology or test kits.
In addition, we could be found liable for monetary damages, which may be significant. If we are found to have willfully infringed a third-party patent, we could be required to pay treble damages and attorneys’ fees. A finding of infringement could prevent us from commercializing our planned test kits in commercially important territories, or force us to cease some of our business operations, which could harm our business.
Even if we are successful in defending against intellectual property claims, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to such claims may cause us to incur significant expenses, and could distract our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, the market price of the Class A Ordinary Shares could be negatively impacted. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce our resources available for development activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to adequately conduct such litigation or proceedings. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their substantially greater financial resources. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of litigation or other intellectual property related proceedings could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Because patent applications can take many years to issue, there may be currently pending patent applications which may later result in issued patents that our current or future products, technologies and services may infringe. We cannot be certain that we have identified or addressed all potentially significant third-party patents in advance of an infringement claim being made against us. In addition, similar to what other companies in the industry have experienced, we expect our competitors and others may have patents or may in the future obtain patents and claim that making, having made, using, selling, offering to sell or importing our products or services infringes these patents. Defense of infringement and other claims, regardless of their merit, would involve substantial litigation expense and would be a substantial diversion of management and employee resources from our business. Parties making claims against us may be able to sustain the costs of complex patent litigation more effectively than we can because they have substantially greater resources. Parties making claims against us may be able to obtain injunctive or other relief, which could block our ability to develop, commercialize and sell products or services and could result in the award of substantial damages against us, including treble damages, attorney’s fees, costs and expenses if we are found to have willfully infringed.
In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we may be required to pay damages and ongoing royalties and obtain one or more licenses from third parties, or be prohibited from selling certain products or services. We may not be able to obtain these licenses on acceptable or commercially reasonable terms, if at all, or these licenses may be non-exclusive, which could result in our competitors gaining access to the same intellectual property. In addition, we could encounter delays in product or service introductions while we attempt to develop alternative products or services to avoid infringing third-party patents or proprietary rights. Defense of any lawsuit or failure to obtain any of these licenses could prevent us from commercializing products or services, and the prohibition of sale of any of our products or services could materially affect our business and our ability to gain market acceptance for our products or services.
 
49

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Because competition in this industry is intense, competitors may infringe or otherwise violate patents of our licensors or other intellectual property. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, we may decide to enforce our intellectual property by filing infringement claims, which can be expensive and time-consuming. In addition, in a patent infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of our licensors is invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, construe the patent’s claims narrowly or refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that the patents do not cover the technology in question. An adverse result in any litigation proceeding or administrative action could put our intellectual property rights at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly.
In addition, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. In addition, during the course of this kind of litigation, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of the Class A Ordinary Shares.
Furthermore, our agreements with some of our customers, suppliers or other entities with whom we do business require us to defend or indemnify these parties to the extent they become involved in infringement claims, including the types of claims described above. We could also voluntarily agree to defend or indemnify third parties in instances where we are not obligated to do so if we determine it would be important to our business relationships. If any of these claims succeed or settle, we may be forced to pay damages or settlement payments on behalf of our customers or may be required to obtain licenses for the products they use. If we cannot obtain all necessary licenses on commercially reasonable terms or at all, our customers may be forced to stop using our products. If we are required or agree to defend or indemnify third parties in connection with any infringement claims, we could incur significant costs and expenses that could adversely affect our business, operating results or financial condition.
Patent terms may be inadequate to protect our competitive position on our products and services for an adequate amount of time.
Patents have a limited lifespan. In Hong Kong and the U.K., if all maintenance fees are timely paid, the natural expiration of a patent is generally 20 years from its earliest filing date. Various extensions may be available, but the life of a patent, and the protection it affords, is limited. Even if patents covering our products and services are obtained, once the patent life has expired, we may be open to competition from competitive products. Even if patents covering our technologies and their uses are obtained, once the patent has expired, we may be open to further competition, which may harm our business prospects. Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new products and services, patents protecting such products and services might expire before or shortly after such products and services are commercialized. As our and our licensors’ patents expire, the scope of our patent protection will be reduced, which may reduce or eliminate any competitive advantage afforded by our patent portfolio. As a result, our owned and licensed patent portfolio may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing similar or identical products.
We use open source software, which may pose particular risks to our proprietary software and source code. We may face claims from open source licensors claiming ownership of, or demanding the release of, the intellectual property that we developed using or derived from such open source software.
We use open source software in our proprietary software and will use open source software in the future. Companies that incorporate open source software into their proprietary software and products have, from time to time, faced claims challenging the use of open source software and compliance with open source license terms. By the terms of certain open source licenses, we could be required to release the source code of our proprietary software, and to make our proprietary software available under open source licenses to third parties at no cost, if we combine our proprietary software with open source software in certain manners. Although we monitor our use of open source software, we cannot assure you that all open source software is reviewed prior to use in our software, that our developers have not incorporated open source software into our proprietary software, or that they will not do so in the future. In addition, companies that incorporate open source software into their products have, in the past, faced claims seeking enforcement of open
 
50

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
source license provisions and claims asserting ownership of open source software incorporated into their proprietary software. If an author or other third party that distributes such open source software were to allege that we have not complied with the conditions of an open source license, we could incur significant legal costs defending ourselves against such allegations. In the event such claims were successful, we could be subject to significant damages or be enjoined from the distribution of our proprietary software. In addition, the terms of open source software licenses may require us to provide software that we develop using such open source software to others on unfavorable license terms.
As a result of our current or future use of open source software, we may face claims or litigation, be required to release our proprietary source code, pay damages for breach of contract, re-engineer our proprietary software, discontinue making our proprietary software available in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis or take other remedial action. Any such re-engineering or other remedial efforts could require significant additional research and development resources, and we may not be able to successfully complete any such re-engineering or other remedial efforts. Further, in addition to risks related to license requirements, use of certain open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the origin of the software. Any of these risks could be difficult to eliminate or manage, and, if not addressed, could have a negative effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely substantially on our trademarks and trade names. If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be harmed.
We rely substantially upon trademarks and trade names to build and maintain the integrity of our brands. Our registered and unregistered trademarks or trade names may be challenged, infringed, circumvented, declared unenforceable or determined to be violating or infringing on other intellectual property rights. We may not be able to protect or enforce our rights to these trademarks and trade names, which we rely upon to build name recognition among potential partners and customers, including that our trademark applications may not be approved by the applicable trademark authority. Our trademarks, including our registered trademarks, could also be the subject of challenges by third parties. In the event that our trademarks are successfully challenged, we could be forced to rebrand our products, which could result in loss of brand recognition, and could require us to devote resources to advertising and marketing new brands. In addition, there could be potential trade name or trademark infringement or dilution claims brought by owners of other trademarks against us. Further, at times, competitors or other third parties may adopt trade names or trademarks similar to those of us, thereby impeding our ability to build brand identity and possibly leading to market confusion. Asserting claims against such third parties may be prohibitively expensive. Over the long term, if we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, then we may not be able to compete effectively and our business may be adversely affected. Any of our efforts to enforce or protect our proprietary rights related to trademarks, trade secrets, domain names or other intellectual property may be ineffective, could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Relating to the Company’s Securities
Sales of a substantial number of our securities in the public market by the Selling Securityholders and/or by our existing securityholders could cause the price of our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants to fall.
The Selling Securityholders can resell, under this prospectus, up to (a) 68,234,696 Class A Ordinary Shares constituting (on a post-exercise basis) approximately 55.2% of our issued and outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares (assuming and after giving effect to the issuance of shares upon the exercise of all outstanding Warrants) and (b) 6,041,007 Warrants constituting approximately 34.8% of our issued and outstanding Warrants. The securities being offered in this prospectus represent a substantial percentage of our outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants, and the sales of such securities, or the perception that those sales might occur, could depress the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We are unable to predict the effect that such sales may have on the prevailing market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants.
 
51

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
See also “— Future resales of our Ordinary Shares issued to our shareholders and other significant shareholders may cause the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.”
This prospectus relates to, among other things, the resale from time to time by the Selling Securityholders of up to (A) 60,441,798 Class A Ordinary Shares, which includes (i) 7,198,200 Class A Ordinary Shares issued in the PIPE Investment at an effective price of $7.75 per share (assuming no value is assigned to the Artisan Private Warrants issued to the Forward Purchase Investors referred to in clause (B)), pursuant to the Amended PIPE Subscription Agreements, (ii) 7,740,000 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to the Forward Purchase Investors at an effective price of $7.75 per share, pursuant to the Amended Forward Purchase Agreements and the Deeds of Amendment to Deed of Novation and Amendment, (iii) 6,933,558 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to the Sponsor pursuant to the Initial Merger, which shares were exchanged from the Artisan Public Shares which were issued upon conversion of the Founder Shares originally issued as set forth in the immediately following paragraph, (iv) 100,000 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to certain Artisan directors pursuant to the Initial Merger, which shares were exchanged from the Artisan Public Shares which were issued upon conversion of the Founder Shares originally issued as set forth in the immediately following paragraph, (v) 9,713,864 Class A Ordinary Shares issuable upon the conversion of 9,713,864 Class B Ordinary Shares issued to Da Yeung Limited pursuant to the Acquisition Merger, which shares were exchanged from ordinary shares and Series A preferred shares of Prenetics originally issued by Prenetics at a weighted average effective price of $0.04 per share, as adjusted for the Exchange Ratio, (vi) 1,881,844 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to Avrom Boris Lasarow pursuant to the Acquisition Merger, which shares were exchanged from ordinary shares of Prenetics originally issued by Prenetics at an effective price of $1.60 per share, as adjusted for the Exchange Ratio, (vii) 3,840,716 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to For Excelsiors Limited pursuant to the Acquisition Merger, which shares were exchanged from ordinary shares of Prenetics originally issued by Prenetics at a weighted average effective price of $0.03 per share, as adjusted for the Exchange Ratio, (viii) 12,660,138 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to Prudential Hong Kong Limited pursuant to the Acquisition Merger, which shares were exchanged from Series C preferred shares of Prenetics originally issued by Prenetics at an effective price of $1.60 per share, as adjusted for the Exchange Ratio, (ix) 9,206,785 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to Genetel Bioventures Limited pursuant to the Acquisition Merger, which shares were exchanged from ordinary shares of Prenetics originally issued by Prenetics at a weighted average effective price of $0.07 per share, as adjusted for the Exchange Ratio, (x) 789,282 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to Cui Zhanfeng pursuant to the Acquisition Merger, which shares were exchanged from ordinary shares of Prenetics originally issued by Prenetics at a weighted average effective price of $2.25 per share, as adjusted for the Exchange Ratio, and (xi) 377,411 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to Lucky Rider Investments Limited pursuant to the Acquisition Merger, which shares were exchanged from Series D preferred shares of Prenetics originally issued by Prenetics at an effective price of $2.25 per share, as adjusted for the Exchange Ratio; (B) 6,041,007 Warrants issued to the Sponsor and the Forward Purchase Investors pursuant to the Initial Merger, which were exchanged from Artisan Private Warrants originally issued to the Sponsor at a purchase price of $1.50 and to the Forward Purchase Investors (together with the issuance of Class A Ordinary Shares) pursuant to the Amended Forward Purchase Agreements and the Deeds of Amendment to Deed of Novation and Amendment; and (C) up to 7,792,898 Class A Ordinary Shares issuable upon exercises of the Private Warrants.
Prior to the consummation of Artisan’s IPO, the Sponsor purchased 8,625,000 Founder Shares for an aggregate purchase price of $25,000, or approximately $0.003 per share. Artisan subsequently effected a share recapitalization and issued an additional 1,500,000 Founder Shares to the Sponsor for no consideration. The Sponsor subsequently transferred an aggregate of 100,000 Founder Shares to certain Artisan directors for no consideration and an aggregate of 750,000 Founder Shares to the Forward Purchase Investors pursuant to the Forward Purchase Agreements, and forfeited 141,442 Founder Shares as the over-allotment option of the underwriters of Artisan’s IPO was not exercised in full, resulting in the Sponsor owning 9,133,558 Founder Shares. Pursuant to the Sponsor Agreement and the Initial Merger, all 9,133,558 Founder Shares were converted into Artisan Public Shares which were then exchanged for an aggregate of 6,933,558 Class A Ordinary Shares upon the closing of the Initial Merger. This resulted in an effective price of approximately $0.004 per share for each of the shares received by the Sponsor pursuant to the Initial Merger and being registered for resale by the Sponsor pursuant to this registration statement.
 
52

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Even though the current trading price of the Class A Ordinary Shares is below $10.00, which is the price at which the units were issued in Artisan’s IPO, the Sponsor and certain other selling securityholders have an incentive to sell their Class A Ordinary Shares because they will still profit on sales due to the lower price at which they purchased their shares compared to the public investors in Artisan’s IPO or the current trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares. Public investors may not experience a similar rate of return on the securities they purchase due to differences in the purchase prices that they paid and the current trading price. Based on the closing prices of our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants referenced above, (i) the selling securityholders that were formerly securityholders of Prenetics may experience profit ranging from $2.18 to $4.40 per share, (ii) the Sponsor may experience profit of up to $4.426 per share, or up to approximately $30.7 million in the aggregate, and (iii) the Artisan Directors may experience profit of up to $4.43 per share, or up to approximately $443,000 in the aggregate.
A certain number of our Warrants will become exercisable for our Class A Ordinary Shares, which would increase the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and result in dilution to our shareholders.
Our Warrants to purchase up to 144,644,717 Class A Ordinary Shares will become exercisable on June 17, 2022 in accordance with the terms of the Assignment, Assumption and Amendment Agreement and the Existing Warrant Agreement governing those securities. The exercise price of the Warrants will be $11.50 per 1.29 shares, subject to adjustment pursuant to the terms of the Assignment, Assumption and Amendment Agreement and the Existing Warrant Agreement. See also “— A provision in the Existing Warrant Agreement may result in additional dilution to our shareholders.” To the extent such Warrants are exercised, additional Class A Ordinary Shares will be issued, which will result in dilution to the existing holders of Class A Ordinary Shares and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. Sales of substantial numbers of such shares in the public market or the fact that such Warrants may be exercised could adversely affect the market price of Class A Ordinary Shares. Assuming the exercise of all outstanding warrants for cash, we would receive aggregate proceeds of approximately $199.6 million. However, we will only receive such proceeds if all the Warrant holders exercise all of their Warrants. The exercise price of our Warrants is $11.50 per 1.29 shares (or an effective price of $8.91 per share), subject to adjustment. We believe that the likelihood that warrant holders determine to exercise their warrants, and therefore the amount of cash proceeds that we would receive, is dependent upon the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares. If the market price for our Class A Ordinary Shares is less than the exercise price of the warrants (on a per share basis), we believe that warrant holders will be very unlikely to exercise any of their warrants, and accordingly, we will not receive any such proceeds. As of June 9, 2022, the closing price of our Class A Ordinary Shares was $4.43 per share. There is no guarantee that the Warrants will ever be “in the money” prior to their expiration, and as such, the Warrants may expire worthless.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research, publish inaccurate or unfavorable research or cease publishing research about us, our share price and trading volume could decline significantly.
The trading market for our Class A Ordinary Shares will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We may be unable to sustain coverage by well-regarded securities and industry analysts. If either none or only a limited number of securities or industry analysts maintain coverage of us, or if these securities or industry analysts are not widely respected within the general investment community, the demand for our Class A Ordinary Shares could decrease, which might cause its share price and trading volume to decline significantly. In the event that we obtain securities or industry analyst coverage, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade their assessment or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price and liquidity for our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants could be negatively impacted.
Future resales of our Ordinary Shares issued to our shareholders and other significant shareholders may cause the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.
Pursuant to our Shareholder Support Agreements, the Shareholder Support Agreement Joinder and the Sponsor Support Agreement, the Sponsor and certain of our shareholders are restricted, subject to certain exceptions, from selling any of our Ordinary Shares that they receive as a result of the share exchange, which restrictions will expire, and therefore additional Ordinary Shares will be eligible for resale as follows:
 
53

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

180 days after the consummation of the Business Combination, up to 71,804,039 Ordinary Shares held by certain of our shareholders;

6 months after the consummation of the Business Combination, up to 8,323,711 Ordinary Shares held by Danny Yeung and Sponsor; and

12 months after the consummation of the Business Combination, up to 8,323,711 Ordinary Shares held by Danny Yeung and Sponsor.
Subject to our Shareholder Support Agreements and the Shareholder Support Agreement Joinder, certain of our shareholders party thereto may sell PubCo Securities pursuant to Rule 144 under the Securities Act, if available. In these cases, the resales must meet the criteria and conform to the requirements of that rule, including, because we were a shell company, waiting until one year after our filing with the SEC of a Form 20-F transition report reflecting the Business Combination.
Upon expiration or waiver of the applicable lock-up periods, and upon effectiveness of this registration statement, which we filed pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement, PIPE Subscription Agreements, the Forward Purchase Agreements or upon satisfaction of the requirements of Rule 144 under the Securities Act, certain of our shareholders and certain other significant shareholders may sell large amounts of PubCo Securities in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, which could have the effect of increasing the volatility in our share price or putting significant downward pressure on the price of our Class A Ordinary Shares. See “Shares Eligible for Future Sale — Rule 144.”
A market for our Class A Ordinary Shares may not develop, which would adversely affect the liquidity and price of our Class A Ordinary Shares.
An active trading market for our Class A Ordinary Shares may never develop or, if developed, may not be sustained. You may be unable to sell your Class A Ordinary Shares unless a market can be established and sustained.
The trading prices of Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants may be volatile and may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including, but not limited to:

changes in the sectors in which we operate;

changes in its projected operating and financial results;

changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;

the level of market adoption of the Circle HealthPod;

ability to continue to innovate and bring products to market in a timely manner;

changes in our senior management team, our board of directors or key personnel;

our involvement in litigation or investigations;

the anticipation of lock-up releases;

negative publicity about us or our products;

the volume of Class A Ordinary Shares available for public sale;

announcements of significant business developments, acquisitions, or new offerings;

general economic, political, regulatory, industry, and market conditions; and

natural disasters or major catastrophic events.
These and other factors may cause the market price and demand for our Class A Ordinary Shares to fluctuate substantially, which may limit or prevent investors from readily selling their shares and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of Class A Ordinary Shares or Warrants. Following periods of such volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been brought against that company. Because of the potential volatility of Class A Ordinary Shares or Warrants, we may become the target of securities litigation in the future. Securities litigation could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources from our business.
 
54

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
The warrant agreement (the “Warrant Agreement”) governing the Warrants designates the courts of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by holders of the Warrants, which could limit the ability of Warrant holders to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us in connection with such Warrants.
The Warrant Agreement provides that, subject to applicable law, (i) any action, proceeding or claim against us arising out of or relating in any way to the Warrant Agreement, will be brought and enforced in the courts of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, and (ii) we irrevocably submits to such jurisdiction, which jurisdiction shall be the exclusive forum for any such action, proceeding or claim. We have waived any objection to such exclusive jurisdiction and that such courts represent an inconvenient forum. Notwithstanding the foregoing, these provisions of the Warrant Agreement do not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal district courts of the United States of America are the sole and exclusive forum. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any Warrants under the Warrant Agreement shall be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the forum provisions of the Warrant Agreement. If any action, the subject matter of which is within the scope of the forum provisions of the Warrant Agreement, is filed in a court other than a court of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (a “foreign action”) in the name of any holder of the warrants, such holder shall be deemed to have consented to: (x) the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts located in the State of New York in connection with any action brought in any such court to enforce the forum provisions (an “enforcement action”), and (y) having service of process made upon such holder in any such enforcement action by service upon such warrant holder’s counsel in the foreign action as agent for such holder.
The choice-of-forum provision limits a Warrant holder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us, which may discourage such lawsuits. Alternatively, if a court were to find this provision of the Warrant Agreement inapplicable or unenforceable with respect to one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and result in a diversion of the time and resources of our management and board of directors.
The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert our management’s attention and affect our ability to attract and retain qualified board members.
We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Act, NASDAQ Global Market listing requirements and other applicable securities rules and regulations. As such, we incur relevant legal, accounting and other expenses, and these expenses may increase even more if we no longer qualify as an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act. The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual and current reports with respect to our business and operating results. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We may need to hire more employees or engage outside consultants to comply with these requirements, which will increase our costs and expenses.
Changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are creating uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs and making some activities more time-consuming. These laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We expect these laws and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to render some activities more time-consuming and costly, although we are currently unable to estimate these costs with any degree of certainty.
Many members of our management team have limited experience managing a publicly traded company, interacting with public company investors and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to
 
55

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
public companies. Our management team may not successfully or efficiently manage the transition to being a public company subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under the federal securities laws and regulations and the continuous scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. The need to establish the corporate infrastructure demanded of a public company may divert the management’s attention from implementing our growth strategy, which could prevent us from improving our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and consequently we may be required to incur substantial costs to maintain the same or similar coverage. These additional obligations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors, particularly to serve on our audit committee, and qualified executive officers.
As a result of disclosure of information in this prospectus and in filings required of a public company, our business and financial condition will become more visible, which we believe may result in threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. If such claims are successful, our business and operating results could be adversely affected, and, even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, these claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could cause an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, prospects and reputation.
We are an “emerging growth company,” and it cannot be certain if the reduced SEC reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants less attractive to investors, which could have a material and adverse effect on us, including our growth prospects.
We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. We will remain an “emerging growth company” until the earliest to occur of (i) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the closing of the Business Combination, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our Shares held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of our prior second fiscal quarter, and (ii) the date on which we issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period. We intend to take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to most other public companies, whether or not they are classified as “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, an exemption from the provisions of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requiring that our independent registered public accounting firm provide an attestation report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation.
In addition, Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts “emerging growth companies” from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies, but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and we have different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with certain other public companies difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
Furthermore, even after we no longer qualify as an “emerging growth company,” as long as we continue to qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we will be exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including, but not limited to, the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their share ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, or current
 
56

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
reports on Form 8-K, upon the occurrence of specified significant events. In addition, we will not be required to file annual reports and financial statements with the SEC as promptly as U.S. domestic companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act, and are not required to comply with Regulation FD, which restricts the selective disclosure of material information.
As a result, our shareholders may not have access to certain information they deem important or at the same time if we were not a foreign private issuer. We cannot predict if investors will find our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants less attractive because we rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market and share price for our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants may be more volatile.
We qualify as a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies.
Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including: (i) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K with the SEC; (ii) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; (iii) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their share ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and (iv) the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.
We will be required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we intend to publish our results on a quarterly basis through press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of NASDAQ. Press releases relating to financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. Accordingly, you may receive less or different information about us than you would receive about a U.S. domestic public company.
We could lose our status as a foreign private issuer under current SEC rules and regulations if more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities become directly or indirectly held of record by U.S. holders and any one of the following is true: (i) the majority of our directors or executive officers are U.S. citizens or residents; (ii) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States; or (iii) our business is administered principally in the United States. If we lose our status as a foreign private issuer in the future, we will no longer be exempt from the rules described above and, among other things, will be required to file periodic reports and annual and quarterly financial statements as if we were a company incorporated in the United States. If this were to happen, we would likely incur substantial costs in fulfilling these additional regulatory requirements, and members of our management would likely have to divert time and resources from other responsibilities to ensuring these additional regulatory requirements are fulfilled.
As a company incorporated in the Cayman Islands and a “controlled company” within the meaning of the NASDAQ corporate governance rules, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from NASDAQ corporate governance listing standards applicable to domestic U.S. companies or rely on exemptions that are available to a “controlled company”; these practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with NASDAQ corporate governance listing standards.
We are a company incorporated in the Cayman Islands and are listed on NASDAQ as a foreign private issuer. NASDAQ rules permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of our home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from NASDAQ corporate governance listing standards applicable to domestic U.S. companies.
We are a “controlled company” as defined under the NASDAQ rules because Mr. Yeung, chairman of our board of directors and our chief executive officer, owns more than 50% of the total voting power of all
 
57

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
issued and outstanding our Ordinary Shares. For so long as we remain a controlled company under that definition, we are permitted to elect to rely, and may rely, on certain exemptions from NASDAQ corporate governance rules.
As a foreign private issuer and a “controlled company,” we are permitted to elect to rely, and may rely, on certain exemptions from corporate governance rules, including (i) an exemption from the rule that a majority of our board of directors must be independent directors; (ii) an exemption from the rule that director nominees must be selected or recommended solely by independent directors; (iii) an exemption from the rule that the compensation committee must be comprised solely of independent directors and (iv) an exemption from the requirement that an audit committee be comprised of at least three members under Nasdaq Rule 5605(c)(2)(A). We intend to rely on all of the foregoing exemptions available to foreign private issuers and “controlled company.” We are not required to and will not voluntarily meet this requirement.
As a result, you may not be provided with the benefits of certain corporate governance requirements of NASDAQ applicable to companies that are subject to these corporate governance requirements.
You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands, and we conduct substantially all of our operations, and a majority of our directors and executive officers reside, outside of the United States.
We are an exempted company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and we conduct a majority of our operations through our subsidiary, Prenetics, outside the United States. Substantially all of our assets are located outside the United States. A majority of our officers and directors reside outside the United States and reside in Hong Kong, and a substantial portion of the assets of those persons are located outside of the United States. None of our officers or directors reside in mainland China. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon our directors or officers who reside in Hong Kong or outside the United States, to bring original actions in Hong Kong or outside the United States based on the securities laws of the United States against our directors or officers who reside in Hong Kong or outside the United States, or to enforce judgments obtained in the United States courts against our directors or officers in Hong Kong or outside the United States.
Our corporate affairs will be governed by our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association ( “Amended Articles”), the Cayman Islands Companies Act and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against our directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands law are different from what they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a different body of securities laws than the United States and some U.S. states, such as Delaware, may have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, shareholders of Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.
The Grand Court of the Cayman Islands may not (i) recognize or enforce against us judgments of courts of the United States predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States or any state; and (ii) in original actions brought in the Cayman Islands, impose liabilities against us predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States or any state, so far as the liabilities imposed by those provisions are penal in nature. Although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, a final and conclusive foreign judgment obtained against us will be recognized by the Grand Court as a cause of action for a debt and may be sued upon without reexamination of the issues if: (a) the foreign court had jurisdiction in the matter; (b) we either submitted to the jurisdiction of the foreign court or was resident and carrying on business in the jurisdiction and was duly served with process; (c) the judgment was not obtained by fraud; (d) the judgment was not in respect of penalties, taxes, fines or similar fiscal or revenue obligations imposed on us; (e) recognition or enforcement of the judgment in the Cayman Islands would not be contrary to public policy;
 
58

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
and (f) the proceedings under which the judgment was obtained were not contrary to the principles of natural justice. A Cayman Islands court may stay enforcement proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere.
Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records (other than the memorandum and articles of association, the register of mortgages and charges, any special resolutions passed by shareholders and a list of the names of the current directors) or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Pursuant to the Amended Articles, our directors shall from time to time determine whether and to what extent and at what time and places and under what conditions or articles the accounts and books of us or any of them shall be open to the inspection of our shareholders not being directors, and none of our shareholder (not being a director) shall have any right of inspection of any account or book or document of us except as conferred by law or authorized by the directors or by ordinary resolution of our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.
Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, differ significantly from requirements for companies incorporated in other jurisdictions such as the United States. As a foreign private issuer whose securities are listed on the NASDAQ, we are permitted to follow certain home country corporate governance practices in lieu of the requirements of the NASDAQ Rules pursuant to NASDAQ Rule 5615(a)(3), which provides for such exemption to compliance with the NASDAQ Rule 5600 Series. We intend to rely on the exemption available to foreign private issuers for the requirement that an audit committee be comprised of at least three members under Nasdaq Rule 5605(c)(2)(A). To the extent we choose to follow home country practice with respect to corporate governance matters, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would under rules and regulations applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.
As a result of all of the above, our shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States.
We do not anticipate paying dividends for the foreseeable future.
It is expected that we will continue to operate at loss in the foreseeable future, and will retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, it is not expected that we will pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.
Our board of directors will have discretion as to whether to distribute dividends. Even if the board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on the future results of operations and cash flow, capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from subsidiaries, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, you may need to rely on sales of our Class A Ordinary Shares after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on your investment. There is no guarantee that our Class A Ordinary Shares will appreciate in value or that the market price of the our Class A Ordinary Shares will not decline.
We have granted in the past, and we will also grant in the future, share incentives, which may result in increased share-based compensation expenses.
In August 2017, Prenetics HK’s board of directors adopted and the Prenetics HK’s shareholders approved the 2017 Share Entitlement/Option Scheme, for the purpose of granting share-based compensation awards to employees, directors and consultants to incentivize their performance and align their interests with Prenetics HK, which was replaced by the 2021 Share Incentive Plan adopted by Prenetics’ board of directors in June 2021, or the Prenetics 2021 Plan. No further awards will be granted under the Prenetics 2021 Plan. We approved and adopted the 2022 Share Incentive Plan, or the 2022 Plan. Initially, the maximum number of ordinary shares that may be issued under the 2022 Plan is (i) 10% of the total number of our Ordinary Shares that were outstanding (on a fully diluted basis) as of the date of consummation of the Business Combination (inclusive of the award pool that remains authorized but unissued prior to the
 
59

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
consummation of the Business Combination), plus (ii) the number of shares reserved for issuance in accordance with our employee share purchase program, the maximum number being 2% of the total number of our Ordinary Shares that were outstanding (on a fully diluted basis) as of the date of consummation of the Business Combination. The 2022 Plan permits the awards of options, restricted shares, restricted share units, or RSUs, and other awards to our employees, directors and consultants and our subsidiaries and affiliates. We believe the granting of share-based compensation is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain key personnel and employees, and as such, we will also grant share-based compensation and incur share-based compensation expenses in the future. As a result, expenses associated with share-based compensation may increase, which may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our dual-class voting structure may limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A Ordinary Shares may view as beneficial.
Our authorized and issued ordinary shares are divided into Class A Ordinary Shares and Class B Ordinary Shares. Each Class A Ordinary Share is entitled to one (1) vote, while each Class B Ordinary Share is entitled to twenty (20) votes with all Ordinary Shares voting together as a single class on most matters. Each Class B Ordinary Share is convertible into one Class A Ordinary Share at any time by the holder thereof, while Class A Ordinary Shares are not convertible into Class B Ordinary Shares under any circumstances. Only Class A Ordinary Shares are listed and traded on NASDAQ, and we intend to maintain the dual-class voting structure.
Mr. Yeung beneficially owns all of the issued Class B Ordinary Shares. These Class B Ordinary Shares constitute approximately 8.75% of our total issued and outstanding share capital and 65.74% of the aggregate voting power of our total issued and outstanding share capital due to the disparate voting powers associated with our dual-class share structure. As a result of the dual-class share structure and the concentration of control, holders of Class B Ordinary Shares have considerable influence over matters such as decisions regarding election of directors and other significant corporate actions. Such holders may take actions that are not in the best interest of us or our other shareholders. This concentration of control may discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control of us, which could have the effect of depriving our other shareholders of the opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of us and may reduce our share price. This concentrated control will limit the ability of holders of Class A Ordinary Shares to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover, or other change of control transactions that holders of Class A Ordinary Shares may view as beneficial.
A provision in the Existing Warrant Agreement may result in additional dilution to our shareholders.
Because we issued additional Class A Ordinary Shares for capital raising purposes in connection with the Business Combination at an effective issue price of $7.75 per Class A Ordinary Share (the “Newly Issued Price”) and the aggregate gross proceeds from such issuances represented more than 60% of the total equity proceeds, and interest thereon, available for the funding of the Business Combination on the date of the completion of the Business Combination (net of redemptions), pursuant to the Existing Warrant Agreement, if the volume weighted average trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares during the 20-trading day period starting on the trading day prior to the day on which we consummated the Business Combination (such price, the “Market Value”) is below $9.20 per share, then the exercise price of the Warrants will be adjusted (to the nearest cent) to be equal to 115% of the higher of the Market Value and the Newly Issued Price, the $18.00 per share redemption trigger price applicable to our Warrants and described in the Existing Warrant Agreement will be adjusted (to the nearest cent) to be equal to 180% of the higher of the Market Value and the Newly Issued Price, and the $10.00 per share redemption trigger price applicable to our Warrants and described in the Existing Warrant Agreement will be adjusted (to the nearest cent) to be equal to the higher of the Market Value and the Newly Issued Price. As of May 26, 2022, the Class A Ordinary Shares were trading at $5.23, being the average of the high and low prices of the Class A Ordinary Shares on May 26, 2022. Any such adjustment under the foregoing provisions may result in additional dilution to our shareholders.
 
60

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Risks Relating to Taxation
We may be or become a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”), which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders.
If we or any of our subsidiaries is a PFIC for any taxable year, or portion thereof, that is included in the holding period of a beneficial owner of our Class A Ordinary Shares or Warrants that is a U.S. Holder (as defined in the section entitled “Taxation — U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations to U.S. Holders”, such U.S. Holder may be subject to certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences and may be subject to additional reporting requirements. We and our subsidiaries do not expect to qualify as PFICs for the current taxable year or the foreseeable future. However, this conclusion is a factual determination that must be made annually at the close of each taxable year and, thus, is subject to change. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we or any of our subsidiaries will not be treated as a PFIC for any taxable year. Please see the section entitled “Taxation — U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations to U.S. Holders — Passive Foreign Investment Company Status” for a more detailed discussion regarding the PFIC rule. U.S. Holders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the possible application of the PFIC rules to holders of our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants.
 
61

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS
The following table sets forth our total capitalization, on an actual basis as of December 31, 2021 on

a historical basis for Prenetics; and

on a pro forma basis, as adjusted for the Business Combination and related transactions as if they had been consummated as of that date. See “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information” for information regarding the basis for the pro forma calculation, including the assumption and adjustments in respect thereof.
The information in this table should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes thereto and other financial information included in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Our historical results do not necessarily indicate our expected results for any future periods.
As of December 31, 2021
Actual
Pro forma
($ in thousands)
Cash and cash equivalents
$ 35,289 $ 169,893
Total (deficit) equity:
(400,895) 219,703
Debt:
Total capitalization
(400,895) $ 219,703
 
62

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Description of the Business Combination
On May 18, 2022 (the “Closing Date”), we consummated transaction contemplated by the previously announced business combination pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, dated as of September 15, 2021, as amended by the BCA Amendment dated as of March 30, 2022, by and among the Company, Artisan, Artisan Merger Sub, Prenetics Merger Sub and Prenetics, pursuant to which (i) Artisan merged with and into Artisan Merger Sub, with Artisan Merger Sub surviving and remaining as our wholly-owned subsidiary and (ii) following the Initial Merger, Prenetics Merger Sub merged with and into Prenetics, with Prenetics being the surviving entity and becoming our wholly owned subsidiary.
As part of the Business Combination: (i) each of Artisan’s units (each consisting of one Class A ordinary share, par value $0.0001 per share, of Artisan (“Artisan Public Shares”) and one-third of one redeemable warrant, each entitling its holder to purchase one Artisan Public Share at an exercise price of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustment (“Artisan Public Warrant”)) issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Initial Merger Effective Time was separated into one Artisan Public Share and one-third of an Artisan Public Warrant; (ii) each Artisan Public Share issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Initial Merger Effective Time (excluding Artisan Public Shares that have been redeemed and Artisan treasury shares) was cancelled in exchange for the right to receive 1.29 newly issued Class A Ordinary Share (iii) each Artisan Public Warrant outstanding immediately prior to the Initial Merger Effective Time was assumed by the Company and converted into a Warrant, subject to substantially the same terms and conditions prior to the Initial Merger Effective Time; (iv) each of the Prenetics Shares (excluding shares that are held by Prenetics shareholders that exercise and perfect their relevant dissenters’ rights, Prenetics Key Executive Shares and Prenetics treasury shares) was cancelled in exchange for the right to receive such fraction of Class A Ordinary Share that is equal to the quotient obtained by dividing $20.330979812 by $10.00, or 2.033097981 Class A Ordinary Shares for each Prenetics Share; and (v) each of the Prenetics Key Executive Shares was cancelled in exchange for the right to receive such fraction of a newly issued Class B Ordinary Share that is equal to the Exchange Ratio.
Substantially concurrently with the execution and delivery of the Business Combination Agreement, (i) the Company Artisan and certain third-party investors (the “PIPE Investors”) entered into PIPE Subscription Agreements pursuant to which the PIPE Investors committed to subscribe for and purchase, in the aggregate, 6,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares for $10 per share for an aggregate purchase price equal to $60,000,000; and (ii) the Forward Purchase Agreements entered into at the time of Artisan’s initial public offering with Aspex Master Fund and Pacific Alliance Asia Opportunity Fund L.P. were amended by the Deeds of Novation and Amendment as of September 15, 2021, pursuant to which Aspex Master Fund and Pacific Alliance Asia Opportunity Fund L.P. committed to subscribe for and purchase, in the aggregate, 6,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares and 1,500,000 Warrants for an aggregate purchase price equal to $60,000,000. The PIPE Subscription Agreements were amended by the Amendment Agreements dated as of March 30, 2022. Pursuant to the Amended PIPE Subscription Agreements, the number of Class A Ordinary Shares to be purchased by the PIPE Investors was increased to 7,740,000. On the Closing Date, the PIPE investors purchased 7,198,200 Class A Ordinary Shares for an aggregate purchase price of $55,800,000. The Deeds of Novation and Amendment were amended by the Deeds of Amendment to Deed of Novation and Amendment on March 30, 2022, pursuant to which, among other things, the number of Class A Ordinary Shares to be purchased by each of Aspex Master Fund and Pacific Alliance Asia Opportunity Fund L.P. was increased to 3,870,000. On April 29, 2022, the  Company Artisan, Pacific Alliance Asia Opportunity Fund L.P. and PAG Quantitative Strategies Trading Limited  entered into a Deed of Assignment, pursuant to which Pacific Alliance Asia Opportunity Fund L.P. assigned to PAG Quantitative Strategies Trading Limited its rights and obligations under the Amended Forward Purchase Agreements and the Deeds of Amendment to Deed of Novation and Amendment.
Anticipated Accounting Treatment
Notwithstanding the legal form of the Business Combination pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, the Business Combination will be accounted for as a reverse merger in accordance with IFRS as issued by the IASB. Under this method of accounting, Artisan will be treated as the “acquired” company
 
63

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
and Prenetics will be treated as the acquirer for financial statement reporting purposes. Prenetics has been determined to be the accounting acquirer based on evaluation of the following facts and circumstances:

Prenetics’ shareholders will have the largest voting interest in the Company;

Prenetics’ shareholders will have the ability to nominate at least a majority of the members of the Board of Directors of the combined entity;

Prenetics’ senior management is the senior management of the post-combination company; and

Prenetics is the larger entity, in terms of substantive operations and employee base.
The Business Combination, which is not within the scope of IFRS 3 since Artisan does not meet the definition of a business in accordance with IFRS 3, is accounted for as a share-based payment transaction within the scope of IFRS 2. The net assets of Prenetics will be stated at their pre-combination carrying amounts, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. Any excess of the fair value of consideration transferred to Artisan shareholders over the fair value of Artisan’s identifiable net assets acquired represents compensation for the service of a stock exchange listing for its shares and is expensed as incurred.
Basis of Pro Forma Presentation
Pursuant to Artisan’s existing charter, Artisan’s Public Shareholders were offered the opportunity to redeem, upon closing of the Business Combination, Artisan Class A Ordinary Shares held by them for cash equal to their pro rata share of the aggregate amount on deposit in the Trust Account. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements reflect the actual redemption of 28,878,277 Artisan Class A Ordinary Shares at approximately $10.01 per share.
The following summarizes the number of the Ordinary Shares outstanding at Closing Date:
Share Ownership in Prenetics Global Limited(1)
Number of Class A
Ordinary Shares
%
Number of Class B
Ordinary Shares
%
Prenetics Shareholders
71,804,039 64.70% 9,713,864 8.75%
Artisan Public Shareholders(3)
6,522,186 5.88% %
Sponsor and certain Artisan directors(2)(4)
7,033,558 6.33% %
PIPE Investors(5)
7,198,200 6.49% %
Forward Purchase Investors(2)(6)
8,707,500 7.85% %
Pro forma Combined Company Ordinary Shares
101,265,483 91.25% 9,713,864 8.75%
(1)
The share amounts and ownership percentages set forth above are not indicative of voting percentages and do not take into account (i) public warrants and private warrants that will remain outstanding immediately following the Business Combination and may be exercised thereafter and (ii) any outstanding Prenetics RSUs, vested or unvested, that were assumed by the Company upon the completion of the Business Combination.
(2)
The share amounts reflect the transfer of 750,000 Artisan Class B ordinary shares from the Sponsor to the Forward Purchase Investors in connection with the Forward Purchase Agreements. The 750,000 outstanding Artisan Class B ordinary shares held by the Forward Purchase Investors were exchanged into Artisan Class A ordinary shares on a one-for-one basis. The Artisan Class A ordinary shares held by the Forward Purchase investors were then converted into the number of PubCo Class A ordinary shares equal to the Class A Exchange Ratio of 1.29.
(3)
Outstanding Artisan Class A ordinary shares held by the Artisan Public Shareholders were converted into the number of Class A Ordinary Shares equal to the Class A Exchange Ratio of 1.29.
(4)
Outstanding Artisan Class B ordinary shares held by the Sponsor and certain Artisan directors were exchanged (a) with respect to the 9,133,558 Artisan Class B ordinary shares held by the Sponsor, into the number of Artisan Class A ordinary shares equal to (x) 9,133,558 minus 2,200,000, divided by (y) the Class A Exchange Ratio of 1.29 and (b) with respect to the 100,000 Artisan Class B ordinary shares held by certain Artisan directors, into the number of Artisan Class A ordinary shares equal to (x) 100,000 divided by (y) the Class A Exchange Ratio of 1.29. The Artisan Class A ordinary shares held by the Sponsor and certain Artisan directors were then converted into the number of Class A Ordinary Shares equal to the Class A Exchange Ratio of 1.29.
(5)
Pursuant to the Amended PIPE Subscription Agreements, the Company issued to the PIPE investors the number of Class A Ordinary Shares equal to 5,580,000 multiplied by the Class A Exchange Ratio of 1.29.
(6)
Pursuant to the Amended Forward Purchase Subscription Agreements, the Company issued to the Forward Purchase Investors the number of Class A Ordinary Shares equal to 6,000,000 multiplied by the Class A Exchange Ratio of 1.29.
 
64

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION
AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2021
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
Artisan
(U.S. GAAP,
Historical)
Prenetics (IFRS,
Historical)
IFRS
Conversion
and
Presentation
Alignment
(Note 2)
Transaction
Accounting
Adjustments
Pro Forma
Combined
ASSETS
Non-current assets:
Property, plant and equipment
$ $ 13,037 $ $ $ 13,037
Intangible assets
23,826 23,826
Goodwill
3,978 3,978
Interest in a joint venture
Deferred tax assets
80 80
Prepaid insurance – non-current
187 187
Investments held in trust account
339,381 (339,381)
D
Other non-current assets
694 694
Total non-current assets
339,568 41,615 (339,381) 41,802
Current assets:
Inventories
6,829 6,829
Trade receivables
47,042 47,042
Deposits and prepayments
508 7,406 7,914
Other receivables
412 412
Amount due from a shareholder
Amount due from a joint venture
Amounts due from related
companies
9 9
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss
9,906 9,906
Cash and cash equivalents
102 35,289 339,381
D
169,893
55,800
E
60,000
F
(21,735)
G
(10,011)
H
(288,933)
K